SOCA01H3 Lecture Notes - Agnosticism, Disembowelment, Soltyrei
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Families, friendship circles, and work associationsMicrostructure
Classes, bureaucracies, and power systems (e.g., patriarchy)
Corporations (have global reach, such as Toyota)
International organizations, patterns of worldwide travel and communication, and the economic relations between countries
Found in relatively weak social integration,
so is responsible for:
Societies before modern times are called traditional societies.
Social integration, social cohesion, social solidarity are all the same.
so they are dependent on social approvalPeople gave them drugs, as they were not under a lot of constraint/social solidarity, so they were more likely to commit suicide.He was correct!(Jews are less likely to commit suicide than Christians (because centuries of persecution have turned Jews into a group that is more defensive and tightly knit)
The Means- Goals Dysfunction
(break between means & ends)
Anomie: “Nice guys finish last”
The space between that leads to the means not leading to the ends, which causes confusions.
Answer to this problem is either pluralism or assimilation (see below)
Male income for reserve Indians = $ 30,045
Male income for non-reserve Indians = $ 41,984
Woman income for reserve Indians = $ 28,000
Woman income for non-reserve Indians = $ 33,000
*Crime is a deviance that has been made into law.
SOCA01- Lecture 1 (09/10/09)
SOCA01 – Lecture 1
•Sociology is a couple of hundred years old.
It is the idea that you can understand society and how people interact with
each other scientifically.
•Émile Durkheim, who was a classical scientist, died in 1917.
He questioned: “Do social forces exist?” and how do they affect behaviour?
His answer: Yes! Social forces have the most powerful influence on human
•How do social forces relate to suicide? Durkheim found these connections in his
He found there are three levels of social structure, which can be demonstrated in an
inverted pyramid in order of importance:
•Suicide is regarded to be carried out only by anti-social people.
•Society is opposed to suicide, but it is social pressure and social interactions
that causes it
SOCA01- Lecture 1 (09/10/09)
•Suicide is considered supremely antisocial and non-social act for three main
1. It is condemned by nearly everyone in society.
2. It typically is committed in private, far from the public’s intrusive glare.
3. It is comparatively rare (in 2004, there were about 11 suicides for every 100
000 people in Canada).
•Individual/psychological interpretations of suicide: “My spouse/partner left me,
how am I going to survive? & etc.)
•Though many people think that the psychological reasons for suicide are the
most influential, society is actually a more important reason for suicide than
•In fact, Durkheim found that as psychological disorders go up, suicide levels go
down (inverse relationship).
Found this out by analyzing European government statistics and hospital
records in France.
Durkheim says that people facing psychological stress/trauma are less likely
to commit suicide.
Therefore, he believes that social integration plays a major role. (Some
societies are highly integrated, while others are poorly integrated).
•People in society are bound together by values, beliefs, religion, customs,
ethnicity, extended kinship network, norms, etc.
•When there is high social integration, there are high levels of conformity
(everyone thinks/acts the same). That is, people are constrained; they are held
back from being individualistic.
•Durkheim says that constraint is good for society and integration. This is
because it pulls them back from doing socially inexcusable acts.
•Some societies are not integrated as well (e.g. modern societies such as
Canada) so they are said to have ‘low integration.’
•Society has a lot of subcultures, which undermine social integration.
Subcultures can be based on life cycles (infancy, childhood, adolescence), religion,
ethnicity, culture, etc.
The teenage subculture is overpowering the parent subculture.
SOCA01- Lecture 1 (09/10/09)
•Complex division of labour leads to low social integration. There are
approximately 4000 different jobs in Canada, which means there are many different
occupations, which only leads to more subcultures, and thus weaker social
•If people did not interact, social solidarity would be weak.
Intense interaction: sitting down and having a group discussions
Not intense: saying “hi” to someone on the street
•When social integration is weak, you get egoistic and anomic suicide (see
graph on slide 8)
•Intermediate levels of social solidarity causes less suicide
•When social integration is strong, you get altruistic suicide.
•Individualism is a modern development. That is, in modern days, there is more
deviance from the norm, and society is more tolerant of these deviences.
•In modern times, there is more devience, crime, divorce, drug abuse, emotional
problems than traditional society.
Therefore, people aren’t as concerned by what people think of them.
•Two important terms that Durkheim used to describe solidarity were:
Mechanical solidarity: high levels of social solidarity (i.e traditional society)
Social approval is very important,
Everyone seems to know everything
Organic solidarity: weak levels of social solidarity (i.e modern society)
•Durkheim says that as we move to organic solidarity, social integration
declines, and it leaves the ego weak and exposed.
He says that a healthy ego has to have lots of social integration. It is
constrained, buried, and mixed within the group. “For a healthy personality,
it must be constrained.”
•He goes on to say that having no constraints has a bad effect on society:
Three examples of people who had no constraints and were thus vulnerable and
isolated (all of them were wealthy):
(jews are less likely to commit suicide than christians (because centuries of persecution have turned jews into a group that is more defensive and tightly knit) International organizations, patterns of worldwide travel and communication, and the economic relations between countries. *crime is a deviance that has been made into law. People gave them drugs, as they were not under a lot of constraint/social solidarity, so they were more likely to commit suicide. The space between that leads to the means not leading to the ends, which causes confusions. so they are dependent on social approval. Answer to this problem is either pluralism or assimilation (see below) Societies before modern times are called traditional societies. The means- goals dysfunction (break between means & ends) Social integration, social cohesion, social solidarity are all the same. (be good) $ 33,000: sociology is a couple of hundred years old.