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SOCA01H3 (591)
Lecture

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCA01H3
Professor
Malcolm Mac Kinnon
Semester
Winter

Description
Overhead projector: Occupational Hierarchy of Prestige Supreme Court Judge 1.) Professionals A.) teachers/profs b.) physicians c.) chartered accountants d.) dentists e.) engineers f.) architects g.) lawyers 2.) white collar a.) successful independent entrepreneur (they don’t need to have high educational qualifications) b.) executive c.) managerial d.) supervisory e.) clerical 3.) Technical a.) computer types software + hardware + programming 4.) Skilled Trades (aristocracy of labour) a.) automotive (they used to call these guys earheads) b.) tool + dye c.) electricians d.) carpenters e.) tinsmiths 5.) Semi-skilled work: Mc Jobs a.) Mc Jobs (service sector) b.) sales clerk c.) manufacturing (assembly) d.) truck drivers 6.) Unskilled a.) janitorial b.) migrant farm workers (see John Steinbecks: grapes of wrath novel) … a farm was taken away from them, and they went to California as migrant farm workers c.) street sweepers d.) shoe shiners Lecture Begins: Social stratification is Social inequality is Social complexity Conflict theorists like the political explanation of social inequality Social complexity: Occupational or job complexity (a complex division of labour)… how many distinct occupations do you find in a society.. the more jobs we have, the more complex it is… -biological term for this: social differentiation… certain biological organisms are more complex than others… ex. Humans more complex than anomeia…they like to use this analogy of how modern city becomes complex 4000 distinct distinct/unique occupations (some will pay more and give you more prestige than others…these relationships are established historically…historical relationship of occupation of inequality -how do we explain inequality?... those who work in a given occupation will use the legiticimacy argument: I make more money than you do because it is justisfied.. I have more education, skill than you do, it takes more intelligence than you, im better trained, so I deserve it. -intelligence testing is inequal for IQ tests…some people score higher than others -motivation = effort -social capital: networking for jobs… connections, this counts more (a person that already works there vouching for you and telling u that ur the best for the job to the supervisor) than your resume -human catpial theorists say a powerful relation in education and income exists -Gaetano Mosca, wrote a book of the Ruling Class – he argues inequality is inevitable in a society… why is it inevitable? =… no society can exist without a political system… political system means coordination of human activity and decision making about coordinating process… without them, everything will be chaos… this is political organization inequality of power is inevitable now because you have people making decisions and people making coordination, so it is inevitable for inequality of powers… who gets to make these decisions… leaders, leadership, coordination, decision making this is all the political organization… leaders give orders and others follow the orders.. if power differences are inevitable, then so are material (income, money) differences inevitable… all this means: when you have political inequality -Michels: iron law of oligarchy: means a small group of people running society (oligarchy)… once people get in power, they start “feathering their own nest” much more comfortable.. you start looking after yourself, start giving out jobs to your friends…then you get political corruption… -Lord Acton: power corrupts…he said absolute power, it corrupts absolutely… -Mosca…. A conflict theory views human nature is self-serving: me first, everybody else after…called self- interest… those with power, will exploit others and gain economic advantage… -people said Mosca always sees the worst in people… he was sinic and a reactionary (a conservative) -conflict theory is radical, functional theory is more reactionary (conservative) -as division of labor becomes complex.. it leads to stratification -stratification: process by which people are socially ranked… we have social classes -over-time, we are becoming more wealthy (from history) … graph that he put in lecture notes on income in 2003 dollars -distribution of income (slide 10)… it is distributed unequally… that top 1/5 is people with university degrees… 2 1/5 will have fewer uni degree ppl, and on and on….social stratification: social structure.. it lasts overtime from one generation to another generation, we still have inequality.. once inequality has become established, it stays, very hard to change -the liberals are more considerate of redistribution of wealth (income tax system, the more you make, the more you have to pay tax… some of this money is sent to the more poor people).. conservatives don’t like this to much… they call liberals taking away their money -individuals are located in this hierarchy, how do you locate them? Based on valued resources… do they posses valued resources?  the big three of stratification: wealth, prestige, and power 1.) wealth (in land, equipment (trucks), RRSP (you get a tax reduction if you buy a RRSP and you will earn the money you make from reductions to buy another RRSP) -all these items mentioned in wealth are called non-liquid assets (ex. If you buy a house, you have to cash in the house, you have to make the asset a liquid in order to sell it) -money: medium of exchange… we live in a world dominated by money transaction -people that belong to the same social class marry each other (ex. Very wealthy people marry very wealthy people) 2.) prestige: a social resource, refers to your social standing in society…how much social honour (do people look up to you/admire you)… institute of behavioural research (IBR)… they have this at York university.. it has done surveys of the Canadian population and asked Canadians: where do you rank specific occupations… what is the most prestige occupation?... the highest is supreme court judge, then its professionals, etc (all this rank of prestige done by the IBR is on the projector) 3.) power: ability to determine the fate of life chances of other people… politicians have power, Donald trump has power, martha stewart has power, professionals have power …(even amongst each other…physicians have power over other physicians)….they decide if you get admittance to the program … they will train you, and then certify you for approval …and they can even throw people out, disapproving others …. -We call professionals licensed practitioners (only a licenses practitioner can practice medicine.. if you tried to do it without a license or approval, you get thrown into jail.. its not allowed)… they try to maintain a legal monopoly (train to become them, and now nobody else can practice medicine now except us)…they have legal monopoly over the body and mind (ex. Court case assigns you to a psychiatrist… they are the only ones that can prescribe drugs… so they have a legal monopoly over this)… -Ontario college of physicians and surgeons (OCPS) (independent body that run their own show, not by the government.. they have their own power)… -some people say that the media has power… but others say that media INFLUENCES you.. hence the media doesn’t have power, it only has influence over you -generally if you have wealth, you also have prestige, and if you have wealth and prestige, you will likely have power - bill gates- worth 55 billion… he’s retired now… he was a business leader… business leaders are seen as greedy, taking advantage of people (conflict theory approach), people in business lack prestige… so when bill gates retires, he has wealth and power (but little prestige), so he gets into charitable work… giving his money to Africa, ai
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