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SOCA01H3 Lecture Notes - Epidemiology, Antimicrobial Resistance, Peter Piot

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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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Sociology lec 9 – health and medicine continued
Neuroses – mental disorder of recent vintage.. in psychiatry, they are all labeled without scientific evidence
‘Madness’ from shakespeare in traditional societies was a mental disorder
-cultural context as to whether you are defined as crazy or normal… but most of the current labeling (in the absence of scientific
evidence) of psychiatric disorders…public organizations find it profitable to come up with stuff (ex. pharmaceutical companies)..
-the Vietnam war was unpopular, the veterans come home and they weren’t even treated as heroes, and then they cant find jobs because
there was a depression.. so they experienced many stress, and many of these people formed a campaign
so they launched a national campaign and directed this campaign to the APA, they asked the APA to make this stress a psychiatric
disorder but the APA initially rejected it but then caved in and said labeled this stress as PTSD a mental disorder… reason PTSD came as
a disorder was actually due to the political campaign (there wasn’t actually true good evidence of it being a disorder), so that the veterans
can get money from the government (because you served your government by fighting in the war and you got injured (PTSD), so now
they’re hoping that the government will compensate for your rehabilitation… even though most of government expenses due to war is
physical (where guy loses arm)… but these ppl from the war also got compensated for their “alleged” problems of PTSD and
government did end up giving them money.. so the label of PTSD is due to political campaign
-self-defeating personality : “im my own worst enemy” … this became a mental disorder … feminist community objected because DSM
is twice as common in woman as men… this amounted to blaming the victim: woman should not be blamed with this label because the
real culprit is patriarchy
-the 1994 edition of the DSM, self-defeating personality disorder was de-labelled… and politics played a key role again in this to get it
the culture plays a big role in determining whether or not you are mentally healthy or unhealthy.. mental disorders are shaped by things
other than scientific evidence (ex. political forces, social values, professional interests, corporations and their interest… all of these come
into the mix when dealing with psychiatric labeling)… theres no clear dividing line between mentally healthy and unhealthy individual,
there’s a kind of continuum… you cant do a biopsy to find out this… so culture plays a critical role in labeling
-you don’t bear the full responsibility of the crime if you bear a mental disorder (called imitigation), so your sentence is reduced
-most common disorder is depression… good treatment for depression is: if you do vigorous cardio exercise, it stimulates production of
endorphins (they produce a tremendous feeling of well being)… so you get this from exercise, so if you got depression, go exercise
-extended and expanded ailments with no detectable biological findings like minor depression and borderline schizerphrenia… there is
no borderline again for what is classified as a disorder
-the new edition of DSM is coming out in 2012… they are going to include:
post traumatic embitterment disorder (so if your boyfriend, husband leaves you, and you are angry, resentful for too long of a
period of time
internet addiction disorder (spending to much of your midnight hours and beyond surfing the internet)
-apathy disorder (back in the days, they called this: “he’s a lazy son of a bitch”
-comfulsive buying disorder – if your buying things that you can’t afford
-comfulsive pathogical eating disorder
-hoarding disorder – people that can never things out, they just keep it in the house and never throw it out
-christopher lain – title of book: shyness… how normal behaviour becomes a sickness
whats responsible for this?
1.) corporate : economic interest of specific corporate groups (specifically pharmaceutical companies… research into drugs for medical
purposes)… they have an interest in expanding this list of disorders so that they can make more drugs and … increading labeling… ex.
Prozac: worlds most widely prescribed anti-depressant… prozac was then repackacged as Serafem and it was marketed to woman
suffering and experiencing a newly condition called premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PDD)… why did it get re-packaged?? Eli Lilly is a
huge pharmaceutical company that sold Prozac and made one third of its revenue came from Prozac …but in 2001, if you discover a new
drug or technology, you have to patent it (right from Federal government…and explain the new discovery you made so that nobody can
copy your drug) and for a certain period of time, you get to own and sell it and make, and other people cannot sell that product, but
eventually the patent runs out… generic –people that are copying the original (but it’s the exact same chemicals that the new company is
using to copy the old drug).. so if you run out of the patent, other people can sell the product too under the generic company, so Eli Lilly
came up with Seraefem (slightly different drug to prozac) and repatented it for this new disorder (PDD) to be the only company to sell
this new drug again
2.) Self-health literature – self-help experts…these experts are on the mass media.. these experts played a key role in the label of
attention defecit disorder (ADD)… and you have to have a drug to treat it and the drug is called Ritalin.. Ritalin was prescribed for
hyperactive and inattentive boys in the classrooms… by mid 90s, North American doctors are writing about 6Billion precscriptions for
Ritalin… its an amphetamine type of compound (speed characteristic like meth)… theres an organization set up.. children and adults
with ADD (CHADD) who use Ritalin made from ciba Geigy (pharmaceutical company)… the company are very friendly with CHADD
and they keep CHADD operating so that they can sell the drug to them
there is some evidence that people with ADD, they have problems absorbing glucose in the brain…a chemical imbalance in the brain that
regulates behaviour….heres the problem with Ritalin: when individuals are diagnosed as ADD
clinical diagnosis- no testing for brain activity (so no looking at glucose absorption testing or chemical imbalance).. it’s a diagnosis based
on observations and on behaviours… and what they look for is hyperactivity, look for impulsivity (these are all traits little boys have)
and they wanted to separate boys from girls to see if it helped the boys learing situation and lose ADD
-but boys tend to learn differently then girls, and they learn with hyperactivity and benig active, they like the attention… so many get
diagnosed with this disorder for no reason… boredom is a symptom for ADDs (but sometimes boredom doesn’t have anything to do with
ADD, the child might just be bored because they’re gifted …children like to act out to get attention so that somebody looks at them and
say: don’t do that, and sometimes children are high-spirited, so very often Ritalin is often prescribed to children for a disorder that
doesn’t even exist.. so educational institutions likes Ritalin because it gets rid of behaviour problems.. medicalization of deviance
basically and they achieve social control in the classroom by prescribing drugs.. who likes this labeling (ADD): pharmaceutical
companies (especially Ciba Geigy), and the people that do the clinical diagnositics like it to, and the educational system also likes it)
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