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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Self and Societies.docx

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Ivanka Knezevic

Self and Societies: Statuses, Roles, Self, Identities Status and Role – Definitions Status: a position in relation to other people Examples: a hockey player, a restaurant servers, a human resource specialist, social worker, a sex trade worker, a father, sister, a best friend, a voter Roles: expected behaviour of a person in particular status (Shaffir and Pawluch follow Parsons: responsibilities and privileges of a status) A status describes what one is, a role describes what one does Structural functionalism: roles restrict agency strongly Ascribed and Achieved Statuses An ascribed status: usually one a person born into (e.g. class), or imposed by nature (getting sick or old), usually considered as unchangeable Ascribed statuses are socially constructed The all-Indian census 1868-1871: gender categories understandable t0 te British, but not to many Indian communities An achieved status: earned or chosen by the actor (e.g. class), usually considered as changeable Ascribed Statuses often influence achievement of statuses Examples? Role Conflict A situation where the demands of one role area at odds with another 1. Time Demands of multiple roles: the actor must choose which role to fulfill 2. Internalized norms of one role spill over into another and result in inappropriate behaviour in that role 1960s US: an increased number of divorces of middle-class couples, caused by husbands’ inability to abandon norms of managerial role at home Symbolic Interactionism and Social Constructionism People act in situations on the basis of the meaning (definition) that the situation has for them, not on the basis of objective characteristics of things and people Thomas and Thomas “if men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences The meanings (definitions) are created and negotiated in social interaction Berger and Luckman combine symbolic-interactionist and Weberian approach 1. Social reality is socially constructed 2. By claim makers who attempt to change definitions of reality 3. Success of claim makers depends on the distribution of power between them and other social actors ((including opponents)  Environmental processes are ongoing. Why do environmental issues appear in the
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