Class Notes (997,951)
CA (575,370)
UTSC (35,506)
Sociology (2,465)
SOCA01H3 (601)
Lecture

Stratification Lecture notes

5 Pages
73 Views
Fall 2010

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA01H3
Professor
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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Stratification
Stratification: a way or process by which categories of people are ranked.
In the past, people argued that inequality was controlled politically. (Immobile)
Today, in modern society people can move within statuses. (Mobile)
People make different incomes is due to a complex division of labour. This is
significantly responsible for inequality.
oSocial differentiation, some are more highly differentiated than others.
There are more parts and this complex division of labour measures these
parts.
oFactors in economic success can be due to natural talent, education,
motivation or responsibility.
oSocial capital is vital for getting good jobs, connections.
oCultural capital is stock of learning and skills that increases chance of
securing a superior job.
oHuman capital: sum of useful skills and knowledge, education. A lot of
evidence between schooling and income levels.
Mosca an Italian elite theorist says that inequality is inevitable. Mosca was called
a cynic and a reactionary, because he spoke of self-interest and believed that
complete equality will never be achieved.
oSociety cannot exist without politics because it coordinates activities.
oInequalities of power lead to self-interest.
Robert Micheles a German elite theorist came up with the “iron
law of oligarchy” idea. Explains that politics corrupts because
people have more power, hence will try to enrich themselves with
this power.
oSelf-interest
Pareto an Italian Elite theorist says that self-interest is a natural
human motive. Economics is based on self-interest.
Lord Acton says power corrupts, absolute power corrupts
absolutely.
How are people ranked? On basis of categories and characteristics, this is called
the stratification system. The higher you are ranked, the more accessibility to
valuable resources you have.
Access to and possession of valued resourced refers to THE BIG THREE
oWealth
Wealth comes in two forms: liquid assets (cash) or non liquid
(house)
Money is a medium of exchange.
oPrestige
Refers to social standing. In modern society prestige is attained
from occupation, which is earned.
www.notesolution.com
oPower
A person can have some of these qualities not necessarily all. Wealth usually
helps bring the rest. Some can argue that Bill Gates would not have prestige.
Social Mobility:
Studies that examine how people move up and down the social ladder.
Opportunity for movement is reflected in the following:
Intergenerational Mobility: a social movement within one’s own life.
Intergenerational Mobility: inheriting a social status from a parent.
What mobility does is it increases social stability because in a mobile society, talented
people at the bottom can work their way up. We often call the world an equal opportunity
society; this is proof that the system works. Upward mobility also removes talented from
the underclass. This leaves the underclass with a diminished chance of social protest and
increases chance of social stability.
Social stratification: Refers to way in which society is organized in layers or strata
Ascription-based stratification system: One in which allocation of rank depends on
characteristics a person is born with
Achievement-based stratification system: One in which the allocation of rank depends
on a person’s accomplishments
Caste system: An almost pure ascription-based stratification system in which
occupations and marriage partners are assigned on basis of caste membership.
Ascribed status belongs to apartheid societies and traditional societies. Apartheid
societies were based on racial superiority and inferiority. Education, transportation,
restaurants, hotels, theatres, housing and even drinking fountains would be segregated.
Ascription: by ethnicity, race, gender, castes.
Two types of societies: open and closed
Open, fluid societies. Achievement based stratification system.
Closed, rigid societies: ascription based stratification system.
Modern societies are more open.
Stereotyping and prejudging are used against inferior groups, while superior groups have
positive stereotypes and prejudgment. Social evaluation shapes your access to resources.
Achieved status
Education
Market place
Athletics
Entertainment
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Stratification Stratification: a way or process by which categories of people are ranked. In the past, people argued that inequality was controlled politically. (Immobile) Today, in modern society people can move within statuses. (Mobile) People make different incomes is due to a complex division of labour. This is significantly responsible for inequality. o Social differentiation, some are more highly differentiated than others. There are more parts and this complex division of labour measures these parts. o Factors in economic success can be due to natural talent, education, motivation or responsibility. o Social capital is vital for getting good jobs, connections. o Cultural capital is stock of learning and skills that increases chance of securing a superior job. o Human capital: sum of useful skills and knowledge, education. A lot of evidence between schooling and income levels. Mosca an Italian elite theorist says that inequality is inevitable. Mosca was called a cynic and a reactionary, because he spoke of self-interest and believed that complete equality will never be achieved. o Society cannot exist without politics because it coordinates activities. o Inequalities of power lead to self-interest. Robert Micheles a German elite theorist came up with the iron law of oligarchy idea. Explains that politics corrupts because people have more power, hence will try to enrich themselves with this power. o Self-interest Pareto an Italian Elite theorist says that self-interest is a natural human motive. Economics is based on self-interest. Lord Acton says power corrupts, absolute power corrupts absolutely. How are people ranked? On basis of categories and characteristics, this is called the stratification system. The higher you are ranked, the more accessibility to valuable resources you have. Access to and possession of valued resourced refers to THE BIG THREE o Wealth Wealth comes in two forms: liquid assets (cash) or non liquid (house) Money is a medium of exchange. o Prestige Refers to social standing. In modern society prestige is attained from occupation, which is earned. www.notesolution.com
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