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Lecture 3

Week 3 Lecture - Sept. 27.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ivanka Knezevic

Feminism - Both macro-and microsociology - Patriarchy determines people’s opportunities in life - Power structures and values, not biology, determine social position of males and females - Patterns of gender inequality should be changed, barrier addressed, opportunities equalized - Disagreement about relative importance of patriarchy & other forms of inequality (class, ethnicity, race): o Maternal feminism (women are superior to men), radical feminism (women should be separate from men), Marxist feminism (gender inequality is class-based), liberal feminism (importance of legal equality) Post-modernism - Modernism (Thomson: enlightenment) has not fulfilled its promise of rational, free, and equal society. Therefore, all assumptions (rationality, universality, belief in progress) and results of modern thought should either be deconstructed or rejected - Stresses the validity of subjective meaning: there is not truth about society (cf. positivism) and all perceptions/interpretations of it are equally valid - Extreme post-modernism: society does not exist – only people’s perceptions and interpretations of it exists Definition - Socialization is a lifelong, interactive process whereby human beings become members of society - Outcomes of socialization: o Developing a sense of self: an individual identity i.e. awareness of ideas & attitudes about one’s personal & social identity; and o Internalization of social expectations i.e. learning of:  Social interaction (cognitive & emotional skills, expectations about behaviour in different situations), statuses, roles, norms - Social isolation/deprivation: isolated (feral children) Nature and nurture debates - Relative importance of heredity & social processes in development of human characteristics (individual & collective) - View of heredity as potential that may be developed or neglected social processes - A self-fulfilling prophecy is an expectation that leads to behaviour that causes the expectation to become a reality - Example: IQ (deprived background; low teacher expectations, culturally- based IQ tests) - Epigenetics: study of ways in which environm
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