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Lecture

SOCA01H3 Lecture Notes - Cultural Capital, Symbolic Interactionism, Credentialism And Educational Inflation

6 pages75 viewsFall 2009

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA01H3
Professor
Sheldon Ungar

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Chapter 17 notes
Mass education
-Education system second in importance to family
-More than half the people in developing countries are illiterate
-In the 1900s Canada and US were first to approach universal education
-Family and religious institutes were the main socializing factor for the young as
well as teaching them skills
-Many couldnt read, Catholic Church did not allow it until the rise of
Protestantism
Uniform Socialization
-Systems of education created strong pressures toward uniformity and
standardization
-Common culture
-Now people travel miles for higher education, no distinction in religion or race
-Compulsory attendance for effectiveness of mass education was enforced by laws
-94% families send children to public school, others do home-school or private
school (Canada)
o
oRising Levels of Education
-1951: 1 in 50 Canadians completed University degree
-Now, 1 in 4 Canadians btwn 24 and 65 years have University degree
-Education is most visible option for improving employment
oEducational achievement: the learning or skill that an individual
acquires and at least in principle it is what grades reflect
oEducational attainment: number of years, certificates or degrees of
schooling completed
-In practice, non-academics factors such as family play a large role in determining
who completes an advanced education
o
Individual Advantages and Disadvantages:
-Degree of education influences unemployment rates as well as earning prospects.
More education, higher pay
-Higher education does not necessarily give more pay, but it tends to
o
oThe Rise of Mass Schooling
oFour factors:
oDevelopment of printing press
·1436, Gutenberg
· Inexpensive books in everyday languages
oProtestant Reformation
·Martin Luther, German monk
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·Bible should guide Christians, not the priests. More direct
contact with God
·More literacy in order to read Bible
oSpread of democracy
·Free education for all children
·Lead to taxing, for tax-supported schools
·Girls and boys almost at same rate in Canada and US, over
90%
oIndustrialism
·Most important reason
· Industrial evolution: England, 1780s
·Universally acknowledged that secret to productive economy
was an education system that can create large
working/scientific research force
oGDP does not increase steadily w/ # of years of
education
oNot only determining factor
·Education is also product of wealth, it takes money to
pursue educa.
Functions of education
oUnintended functions
-Consequence of schooling is segregating people by age and forcing them to spend
time together, youth culture
oAssortative mating: choosing a mate who is similar to oneself on
various ranking criteria
Similar academic qualifications, same discipline and from
same social origins and destination
-Schools encourage critical and independent thinking that challenge and promote
social change
-Keep kids in school for parents to work
oLogic of Industrialism
oLogic of industrialism: functionalist, requirements that social
institutions must satisfy to make industrialism possible.
-Functionalists argue that industrialism dictates and social constitutions develop
according to a common pattern. Wide spread of science and technology, constant
change in workplace
-Reduction of family role in shaping children
-Homogenization and sorting rise when minimum level of schooling rises
o
oCultural Homogeneity, Solidarity and Nationalism
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