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Lecture 7

SOCA02- Lecture 7 (Crime and Deviance).docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

March 8, 2012 Crime and Deviance 1. TYPES OF CRIME (a) DISTINGUISHING CRIME FROM DEVIANCE  General or generic term is deviance- any behaviour that violates social norms, and produces some reaction; betrayal of trust is a violation of a friendship norm; deviance is also violating a norm that gets you thrown in jail, which is referred to as criminal deviance (one that violates a law); two types of deviance- criminal and noncriminal  Canadians attitudes towards crime  Television programs that feature crime are often the most popular; (b) JUVENILE DELINQUENCY  Juvenile delinquency- juveniles are treated differently than adults; the age which you can be charged as an adult generally varies with type of crime committed; it is seen as being very serious because it can lead to a life of crime; someone can become a persistent offender, thus every effort is made to rehab these offenders, and not throw them into jail with adult offenders; besides male rape, juveniles can be taught how to be successful criminals by the elder, violent criminals; labeling is a sociological concept that means when society labels you, very often people will live up to the label; they will acquire an identity from social labeling and live up to this identity that they have been given; you want to prevent this from happening because young people are impressionable; rehabilitation is important; most offenders are male and from lower SES groups because most crime are called common crimes (stealing cars, B&E, assault, and occasionally homicide) (c) VICTIMLESS CRIMES  Drugs a victimless crime? Sometimes called consensual crimes meaning both parties agree; many sociologists argue that drugs are a victimless crime; 112 years ago, one can do whatever one wanted (use of cocaine) Laudanum- combination of alcohol and opium which was widely used in the 19 century, including the American civil war when amputating a leg; prior to the th 20 century, drugs were used quite regularly; virtually nobody went on to hard drug use after using marijuana (only a tiny portion of people); when both parties agree that there is no victim in the traditional sense (someone wants to buy drugs, and someone wants to sell), both parties agree to the transaction; as opposed to someone robbing someone else for drugs; same thing can be said of gambling (people will take/give money, take/give bets); vagrancy- someone can be picked up and spend the night in jail for being homeless; prostitution- someone wants to buy their body, someone wants to sell it; entrapment is a technique reserved specifically for victimless crime because no one is going to report a victimless crime; police undercover work, young female police officers often pose as prostitutes; many people are opposed to entrapment (the police encourage you to break the law) (d) WHITE COLLAR CRIME  If university student are to commit a type of crime, it would be white collar crime; committed by middleclass and upper-class people as opposed to street crime which is committed by lower classes; white collar crimes require education, special information, and access to certain kinds of resources; Edwin Sutherland is the sociologist who popularized white collar crime; it was known prior to this, but it wasn’t investigated; people assumed most crime was committed by the underclass; related to work, costs society billions; Bernie Madoff cheated people out of 50 billion dollars (he was paying incredibly high interest rates which should have drawn a red flag); costs society 40 times as much as street crime; difference between white collar crime and street crime is the lack of physical violence (mugging, car theft, B&E); Sutherland found that 70 large corporation, over a period of 5 years, had been convicted of 890 crimes; copyright infringement means stealing intellectual property (stealing songs, violating patents); price fixing is when companies get together and fix the price of a product; industrial spying- if someone works for Xerox who develops a new copying machine, and that someone takes pictures of the design and sells them to a competitor; forgery means faking documents, very often it is related to accounting practices, where you say that a company is making all kinds of money when it’s really not; fraud is selling something and claiming that it represents which it is not; embezzlement is very common, stealing money from your company (ex. Bank worker in America funnelled a very miniscule amount into a separate account, then wired the money to Rio where he now lives); tax evasion- not paying one’s taxes; unsafe workplace- very long workplace code (rules, regulations, statutes); selling unsafe products or misrepresenting product- if manufacturer knows a product is unsafe then it is a white collar crime; pollution is also a white collar crime; white collar crime is treated more leniently than street crime; system is harder on underclass individuals; these people cannot afford to hire a top-class lawyer; in recent years, the courts have started to take white collar crime more seriously; Ken Lay (Enron)- accounting fraud, he was going to go to jail for a long spell but died of a heart attack; Jeffrey Skilling (Enron)- accounting fraud; Bernie Ebers (WorldCom)- doing several life terms; Bernie Madoff- ran an investment scheme racquet, Ponzi (American in the early part of the 20 century) scheme (invest and I will pay you 15% interest)- people will invest then get others to invest, thus Madoff used money from new investors to pay dividends to other clients; sometimes called pyramid schemes; Martha Stewart- insider trading, she was charged with insider trading where someone working for a company, aware of future plans and hence have an advantage; done all the time, but difficult to catch; prosecution laid a perjury trap on Martha Stewart (use the phrase, to the best of my recollection); Conrad Black used honest services to convict him, which he challenged because it was unconstitutional; charged Conrad with about 50 crimes, and 4 of them stuck; (e) ORGANIZED CRIME  Stereotype out there that organized crime is Italian; Hollywood pushes this idea forward; Donnie Brosco, Goodfellas; organized crime is an equal opportunity activity, meaning every ethnic group has been a part of it at some point; Irish organized crime was widespread, mostly waterfront, docking activities, associated with unions and things; the Scots invented bootlegging- selling alcohol illegally, the English tried to tax scotch and the Scots honed their skills in making illegal scotch during the prohibition era (1919-1932); Italian organized crime called the Mafia; Sicilian organized crime called the Cosa Nostra; many Jews were involved in organized crime during the early part of the 20 century; Casino is the life story of Bugsy Segal who set up the Flamingo; another notorious crime figure in the 1920s and 1930s was Mayer Lanksy who was an expert in money laundering, and worked for Al Capone (Italian); Italian organized crime would set up an olive oil importing companies in order to launder money; Russian organized crime is widespread, highly sophisticated and very violent; Japanese organized criminals drive black American Cadillac; Chinese-Triads; Vietnamese organized crime is mostly in drugs; Jamaican organized crime; Latin organized crime is usually drug cartels- Pablo Escobar, a multi billionaire, trafficked cocaine from Columbia; organized crime in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan deal with opium; ethnic association gives group solidarity and cohesiveness, which make them hard to infiltrate; top of the food chain in organized crime is Hells Angels (biggest organized crime group in the world); (i) THE ETHNIC CONNECTION (ii) ORGANIZATION IN ORGANIZED CRIME (iii) CLIENTS OF ORGANIZED CRIME (iv) THE INCOME OF ORGANIZED CRIME  Outlaw bikers have started to initiate new members to the inner circle by forcing them to kill someone, thus keeping police from entering; outlaw bikers are into  Organized crime connects to the through graft it is when you pay off police, politicians and judges; a squealer in organized crime used to be called a canary (because a canary sings); loan sharking accounts for 0.2% of total income; prostitution-2.4%; porno-4.4%; (perhaps an urban legend) snuff movies- films that involve somebody actually being killed; organized crime makes money from gambling-5.2% (was higher until another organized crime outfit (government) realized how much they wanted to get a piece of the action, which then started up lotteries and casinos everywhere; drugs-87.7% of organized crime revenue comes from it; some say drugs should be decriminalized; organized crime exploded during the time of prohibition; if drugs are decriminalized, then organized crime may lose an overwhelming amount of its influence; (f) CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY AND PERSONS  Homicide rates have been falling since the 1980s; 1962: 221 violent crimes per 100, 000  1970 480 violent crimes; 1980-636; 1992: 1084; this is a 500% increase in 30 years; 90% sexual assaults not reports; 61% physical assaults not reported; 54% of robbers not reported (see p.23)  Sometimes called personal crimes (crimes against women, crimes against women but not property, mostly a physical attack on a person)  Two kinds of assault: general assaults (somebody punches you in the nose with no real cause), aggravated assault is when you do some significant damage to another individual and it is unprovoked; general assault includes murder- first degree murder is when one plans the killing of another human being and prosecution can prove this, second degree murder is a killing that was not planned out ahead of time (not premeditated), but done in the moment, manslaughter is a lesser crime, someone dies as
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