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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - Jan. 24, 2013.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCA02H3
Professor
Ivanka Knezevic
Semester
Winter

Description
Demographic transition - First demographic transition: change from low and stable population of pre- industrial societies (high fertility, high mortality) to growing population of industrial societies (slowly declining fertility, fast declining mortality) - Modernization theory of development: industrialization fosters labour force participation and rationalism, which foster decline in fertility - Cultural lag: cultural norms maintain high fertility - Second demographic transition: change from growing population of industrial societies to high and stable (later: declining) population of post-industrial societies (low fertility, low mortality) Population change in Canada – fertility - Demographic change is the result of fertility, morality, and net migration. Declining fertility is the most important cause of population aging - Fertility declined from 7 births per woman in the 1850s to under 2 by the 1980s - Replacement fertility is the average number of children needed to replace on generation by the next (2.1 children per woman) - Proximate causes: fewer long-term relationship and marriages, older age at marriage, more divorces, cohabitation, and use of birth control - Cultural causes: changes in value and cost of children in both economic and cultural terms - Structural causes: changing role of men and women in their work and social life Population change in Canada – Immigration - Immigration accounted for 45% of Canadian population growth in the 1990s - Immigrants contribute to the population reproduction not only by net migration, but also by higher fertility rates than Canadian-born - Family-class immigrants contribute to the aging of the Canadian population - Issue: language- and culture-appropriate care for the elderly Population change in Canada – aging - Indicators of age structure of a population: o 1. Proportion of people over 65 (increased by 11.5% 2001-06) to proportion of people under 15 (decreased by 2.5% 2001-06); and o 2. Median age (under or over 30) - People 20-65: active cohort (i.e. labour force) finances social services for themselves, children and the old - Phases of population aging in Ca
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