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Lecture 3

Sociology Part 2 Lecture 3.docx

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Sheldon Ungar

Sociology Part 2 Lecture 3: Family  Key Issues:  Family is valued but seen as threatened  Divorce, teenage pregnancy, violence  We look back at the family in history  Avoid nostalgia  Argue: Behaviour is a function  Functional View of Family  Conditional family life: Nuclear family as beneficial  regulates sexual behaviour & reproduction  socialization  protection  affection & emotional relatedness  economic unit, confers status  Conflict/Feminist view  family (especially under capitalism)  economic rather than emotional unit  oppressive  women as dependent labour  Historical approach  Pre-industrial European family  Not idealize past, but seek out the “facts”  piece it together from Church records, graves, medical reports, etc...  Guiding Hypothesis  Family hypothesis: pre- industrial family as extended- underlies the nostalgia, the reality s more complex.  Industrialization leads to isolation of the nuclear family. Grand parents live separately. In this good or bad? – a problem unlike pre-industrial family  Variable 1: births and deaths – maybe 1 in 3 make it past five! – the rate could be lower. Many women die in childbirth ( see implications of this in a minute.). Karl Marx’s daughter died before him. If you made it past five you’re likely to live on. Small pox is not a pleasant disease to get. If the kid didn’t come from the right direction, they are most likely to die.  Infant Mortality under 5 (per 1000 births).  Variable 3: household size and composition [who these people are]– crowding. . Most of them turned out to be smaller, the houses were small. Only the rich had larger extended family - you need more space, food and money to have a larger extended family  Selling kids into the labor force in exchange of money. The owner often sent money home. The eldest son was to stay home to inherit whatever they had. There were also fewer adults expected. Lots of mothers died in childbirth and often the father died. Back then, if the father got an infection from some sort f injury they didn’t have antibiotics so they died. Lot of older women married younger men. The reason is former birth control. They didn’t need divorce much. Because mothers died often, lots of re-marriage created lots of step -children. Refer to the fairy tales, often step mothers are the bad one – selfish gene. The basic question was “is my kids okay” . The step children: someone else’s kid, the children would have to work work work to survive  Homes had virtually no furniture’s, often shared with animals. Freezing cold – not possible to leave the animals outside. They lived in the house at night. They only had one room to live in, they have seen births and deaths, sexual relations, arguments, beating each other. They lived like that. It was all in that place, a very tiny place  Variable 3. Children: “good mothering is an invention of modernization” – Edward Shorter, The making of the modern family  Kids had rashes, due to not having diapers,. In Nova Scotia, 7 year old would crawl around. The idea was not to get emotionally attached with them. They called the baby “the thing” . The stronger kids would get more milk unlike the weaker ones.  Variables 4: marriage, peer groups. Marriage was done for money and labor. Often young men and older women, Older women may be established and that would help for the survival of the family. Married couple kind of avoided each other. There wasn’t enough romantic love relationship but rather it was like beating each other. They would have various punishments for people. Peer groups: was form of the passionate group of people. More like modern generation and life was segregated.  Modernization (industrialization) : Differentiation and specialization of institutions – separate family and work, the factory – wage labor : people are moving out of rural areas and move to factory based areas.  Differentiation of institutions: differentiated – church family work – separated, undifferentiated= more close to each other  Urbanization: village to real organization. The cities were bigger and crowed , Movement to cities: i.e: factories  Young gain greater freedom – job choice : no job fairs but employers to go to., can live on own, emergence of romantic love
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