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SOCA02H3 (398)
Lecture 6

Lecture 6.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

Crime Control  Do We explain deviance and assume conformity as a given OR do we explain conformity and assume deviance is natural o People can develop “ties” or “bonds” to established order  OR to deviant groups/or to both Control Theory-Hirschi;  Deviance does not require special motivation  The proper research question is not “Why do some people engage in deviance” BUT “Why don’t more people engage in deviance” Control Theories  Have Strong “propensity” to deviance o Can be fun and potentially rewarding  Trainspotting  Conformity due to strong social controls o Attachment & involvement in conventional institutions  “Stake in conformity”  Eg. Girls lower crime rate because supervised more and are more attached to family.  Attachment/involvement; o Family, non-deviant peers, schools, jobs, community, sports Can Social Control work from above?  Use police, courts, prisons to deter those with attachments to society  Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment o Police randomly arrest for spousal abuse o Find: Arrest>less subsequent violence  Experiment contributes to mandatory arrest laws o Specify affects of mandatory arrest  If have stake in society; mandatory arrest lowers subsequent offences  If no stake: mandatory arrest increases subsequent offences Social Control can cause increase in crime Labelling Theory;  Contends that social reactions to deviance are an important cause of deviance  Deviance amplification; attempt to control deviance makes it more likely  When agents of social control label some behaviour as deviant they can stabilize and reinforce deviant identities Deter from above;  Control deviance by making costs too great  Deter if perceive punishment as; rapid, certain, severe  Rapid & Certain are most important “3 Strikes and you’re out” law  Mandatory life sentence Explanations(why dropping crime rate) : Policing  More police  Community based policing o Compstat: real time data base on criminal activity  “Broken Windows Theory” o Control disorder, disintegration  Panhandling, public drunkenness, graffiti,  Stop and Frisk o
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