The ideal craftmanship has got lost. This is school of alienation. Part time jobs are generally not known
to be stimulated and require high level of creativity. Capitalism destroys ideal craftsmanship. Ideal
craftsmanship – in the middle ages build craft guilds. Profession organize resemble craft guild. Direct
relation b/w guild and new craftsmanship. Peasants worked in the fields – they were small time farmer.
This work was more creative & consistent. Carl marks idea of “our species being” – is wht nature is all
about; we can’t live without work. If u don’t work, u don’t survive. It is natural to find creativity in work.
We are naturally curious & we like to accomplish things (achieve self fulfillment). Factory system brings
new form of work; this sys denied self fulfillment. This was bcz prior to industrial revolution, pple had
occupational control. Peasant’s work had the variety. Doing thing over and over again cause alienation.
Peasants planted crops, harvested crops, made their own tools, build own home, some made their own
clothes even. Generalist means somebody that can do bunch of diff things. So historically peasants were
generalist rather than specialist. Peasant and craftsman had more leisure than we have today. Before
rev, in Europe there was 180 holidays an year. Each holiday in middle age was celebrated for different
saints. Now, they brought in work ethic. Early factory workers – urban proletariat- worked 80 hours a
week. They were working in filth.
We have general categories and sub categories of craftsmanship:
1) Intrinsic Gratification- work shud be performed “ for its own sake”. This was Mark in his
humanistic faith. Work shud be performed for gratification. There shud be connection b/w the
person and the thing that he creats. Once inner relationship is established then u have ur total
concentration in the job. When job commanding it required total conc, time flies.
2) Extrinsic Gratification- pple work for reason external to the actual work process. Ex. Money gives
us security. Work gives u money, income, prestige and power over other pple.
Good jobs vs bad jobs
This combines extrinsic and intrinsic reasons. Higher edu pays well; jobs are not closely supervise, have
good benefits, security etc. professions give both intrinsic and extrinsic gratification. Ideal craftsmanship
lost -> material psychological ownership is lost. Wht existed prior is that workers use to own their finish
product. U purchase ur own raw material. It use to take more skills to make things from scratch. Pple
owned raw material/ finish prod and they also owned the tools that are require to make that prod. In
modern era, company owns the tool. Prod tech today can be automated tech, not possible for workers
to own that kinda tool. So material psychological ownership get lost. Incidentally, some professions
today still own their own tools e.g. dentistry – they own their own tools. Physicians or surgeon owns their own surgical tool (But they can’t own CAT scan) . We still see some rare cases in which pple own
their own tool. Ideal craftsmanship refers to that work responsibility that is lost.
Job discretion- is when work pace is controlled (how fast or slow do I have to do work). Job discretion is
when workers decide wht they are gonna produce. The amount that is produced is again determined by
the workers. They have absolute control over quality. Steve jobs created tech with design. He is great ex
of ideal craftsmanship. Steve created most successful company in the world. He created it by way of
craft ideal. Pace of work and the quality of work or the prod is absolutely essential. The tech that u
decided to use to create a particular piece of prod needs a set plan. The plan is not always fluid. Ex.
Assembly lines. 60 sec job. Plan is always been decided. In Craftsman ship, plans are more fluid. Writing
on the paper is imp for independent study, where u can revise it, organize it, and gradually change it
into finish prod. When u r in uni, craftsmanship is v. high.
Ex. Scientific management was developed in early part of 20 century by Fredrick Taylor who
eliminated unnecessary actions .Called it “taylorism”. Scientific management is separation b/w planning
and implementation. Plan and implementation is separated. Pple plan the work so it is efficient.
Implementation is actually doing the work. Managers plan & workers implement. Classic movie called
modern times; it was about struggle in the mechanized work.
Next aspect is self development. Under the ideal, worker has the responsibility for the entire task.
Division of labor is narrow, worker makes the all prod. Under the old ideal, skills and the abilities may
become progressively defined. U become more complete person as a result of work. The self becomes
actualized. Ex. baby gets the opportunity to develop actualization by observing & experiencing the
world. Abraham azhma had the self actualization, similar to Marks idea of species being. Creative work
permits objectivity of self. The self achieves objectification. U are evaluated on wht u make or prod. This
is more physical since u can touch ur finished prod. When it comes to self, it is abstract. Creative work
gives concrete existence. That is why we say, this person is all the talk – they claim to have self
intelligent, capability and everything but this doesn’t really represent anything of them (since we don’t
have a prod to show). Quote: “Action speaks louder than words”. If pple don’t have the opportunity of
creative work, they shrivel and they die.
Perceptual unity – means work becomes compartmentalize. Work is separated from other aspects of
living, only for certain time of the day. So craftsmanship has unity. Old craftsmanship made no
distinction b/w work and leisure. There is a lost of perceptual unity when u don’t separate work from
other aspect of living. The group that has the highest perceptual unity is the Professions. They don’t
make this distinction. This is bcz work is seen as a part of life. In industry, pple loose intrinsic
gratification, psychological ownership, responsibility, actualization and work becomes fragmented.
Rationalization- idea comes from max where labor work has caused the major development in the
world since the beginning. All of their work dealt with alienation. “Welcome to the machines” – this
phrase is an ex of modern world. Rage against the machine – rage against rationalization (this is the
tone of anarchist). Sometimes rationalization is called enslavement ship- machine control our lives. Alienated pple talk about enslavement. This is to make the work more productive. By Technocraft u inc
the prod and efficiency . We attach number to things, to calculate the world environment. This way we
make it efficient. We call it disenchantment. Rationalization is also secularization where religion pushes
to the side. This is the rise of science and tech.
Means calculated to achieve specific ends
Means -> End
Laissez –Faire (see book)
The invisible hand
Time and motion people - they measure how much time it takes worker to do a task. So they will
examine that and investigate that; ex someone will come up to u and tell u that ur position is not
correct. Efficiency become cultural values & life become regimented. Before our age, they didn’t paid
attention to efficiency. Efficiency is how u can make a prod in best way. U gotta pay attention to it if u
are running business. So work process is redesigned. They have made it Idiot proof where use of
defensive design principles cannot be misused. Ex. Under old craft idea, we see one person doing
everything. But nowadays, diff pple doing diff works, so u break down the work into tiny components and
assign piece of action. Then we have to coordinate the activity so the finished pr