SOCA02H3 Lecture Notes - Ritualism In The Church Of England, Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Travis Hirschi

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28 Mar 2013
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Chapter 7 Text Book Notes
-For last 3 decades Canadian constantly place crime among the top 3 of the social issues that concern
them.
- Crime in general & violent crime in particular is on the rise.
- Majority of Canadian adults feel the courts are too lenient with offenders (young offenders
in particular).
-Crime simply indicates a technical violation of criminal law.
-Sociologists consider how Social Definitions, Social Relationships & Social Conditions lead to crime
events & labeling by law.
SOCIAL DEFINITION
A)TYPES OF C&D (CRIME & DEVIANCE)
-Deviance Breaking a norm (not breaking social average but a socially accepted norm/rule of
behaviour.
Deviant acts are punished formally & informally.
Informal Punishment Mild eyebrow raise, gossip, shaming or stigmatization (negatively
evaluated because of a marker of difference, distinguishing them from others EX: hair, looks,
appearance, name)
Formal Punishment results from breaking law(norms enforced by govt bodies EX: prisontime,
community service hours)
Types of deviant crimes classified in 3 dimensions (John Hagan)
1) Severity of social response murder will result in severe social response such as life
imprisonment or even capital punishment, whereas wearing a nose ring brings mild social reaction
(disapproval of slight deviation from norms).
2) Perceived harmfulness “PERCEIVED” not actual. Sexual assaults-seen as very harmful &
tattoos are regarded as harmless. EX: COCACOLA contained cocaine, now cocaine is illegal a
change in people’s perception of harmfulness.
3) Degree of public disagreement disagreement between people. People argue about whether
marijuana should be illegal considering the fact that it also aids cancer patients with their pain &
nausea. EX: definition of murder varies across cultures & societies (killing newborns in Inuit
communities-not a crime helps save scarce resources. A workers death at work due to safety reasons,
highly debatable, “Accidental” should the company be held responsible?)
Four types of C&Ds (John Hagan)
1) Social Diversions minor acts of deviancy EX: Fads & Fashions (blue hair, piercings) evoke
most mild social reactions such as amusement or disdain. Usually harmless
2) Social Deviations more serious acts, subjected to institutional sanctions (more people agree
these are deviant acts & somewhat harmful) EX: Japanese school banning long hair that was punished
by a humiliating public haircut.
3) Conflict Crimes deviant crimes defined as illegal by state, but in a wider society the issue is
controversial EX: tax on beard in Russia under Tsar Peter since it symbolized russia’s past instead
of future.(classified as a crime only in Russia; harmed Russia because it represented Russia’s past)
4) Consensus Crimes “bad” crimes, very little controversy or debate about them. Great majority
of people support punishment for these crimes. EX: a peasant sporting the haircut of a warrior (brings
social order of Japan in question, breaking the caste system rules)
THEY ALL SHOW THAT PEOPLE’S CONCEPTION OF C&D VARIES OVER TIME &
BETWEEN SOCIETIES (EX: HAIR STYLE CAN BE A MATTER OF LIFE & DEATH.)
B) POWER & SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF C&D
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Document Summary

Crime in general & violent crime in particular is on the rise. Majority of canadian adults feel the courts are too lenient with offenders (young offenders in particular). For last 3 decades canadian constantly place crime among the top 3 of the social issues that concern them. Crime simply indicates a technical violation of criminal law. Sociologists consider how social definitions, social relationships & social conditions lead to crime events & labeling by law. Deviance breaking a norm (not breaking social average but a socially accepted norm/rule of behaviour. Informal punishment mild eyebrow raise, gossip, shaming or stigmatization (negatively evaluated because of a marker of difference, distinguishing them from others ex: hair, looks, appearance, name) Formal punishment results from breaking law(norms enforced by govt bodies ex: prisontime, community service hours) Sexual assaults-seen as very harmful & tattoos are regarded as harmless.

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