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SOCA02H3 (398)

Chapter 17.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Andrew Mc Kinnon

Chapter 17. Education -St.Leonard riot- passed bill 101 making French the language in primary and secondary schooling in Quebec. -Schools are hugely important institutions because:  Teach students common culture that forms framework for social life  Shape work and politics  Sorting children into adult jobs and social classes  Controversial b/c it endow future generations with capacities of communication, coordination and economic productivity -Must accomplish two tasks: homogenizing and sorting. Exists in all education levels and public, private institutions -private institutions=varying degrees of religious instruction -homogeneity = out of diversity by using a uniform curriculum, enforcing common standards like language -sorting: favors students in who develop greatest facility in common culture and confine those with less skills to subordinate work roles and lower ranks in class structure -mass schooling linked with industrialism and to maintaining a modern, productive economy -industrialism needs interchangeable workers -Potential workers= culturally homogenized with similar outlooks and language, willing to receive training -more education = lower unemployment and higher earnings= better labor market -Education= gives students common outlook, reproduces class structure and structure of global inequality Mass Education: An overview -till highschool= 13000 hours in classroom -education system= displaced organized religion as main purveyor of formal knowledge -2 important after family for socialization -more than half people in developing countries=illiterate  India= more than 400 million people cant read/write. 35 million children don’t attend school  Proportion of people b/w 25-64 age with college/university degree highest in Canada-48%. Japan is 2 -40%, US 3 -39%  More than half of 19yr old are enrolled in postsecondary in canada - Universal mass education phenomenon=limited to wealthy countries -Canada & US first countries – universal education participation by youth -history- family chiefly responsible for socializing- preindustrial Europe -before Protestantism= priests held a virtual monopoly on literacy -Catholic church’s authority depended on the inability of ordinary people to read the bible Uniform Socialization -training in families was decentralized, unorganized and uneven in quality -replaced families and religious forms of instruction= creating education systems -education systems: centralized, rationalized, uniformity and standardization -Diversity among families, regions and religions gave way to homogenized indoctrination of a common culture -Canada- before separate schools for Catholics and Protestants -effective mass education achieved through laws making attendance compulsory Rising Levels Of Education -Making education available=starting point -1 in 4 Canadians have postsecondary degree -barriers to education= financial, motivational and academic performance -education-improves employment opportunities -sociologists distinguish educational attainment from educational achievement - educational achievement: the learning or skill that individual acquires and atleast in principle it is what grades reflect. Actual leaning of valuable skills and knowledge -educational attainment is the number of years of schooling successfully completed or for higher learning the degrees or certificates earned. -selection= mostly depends on educational achievement Individual Advantages and Disadvantages -high education= more employment & high earning -unemployment more than twice the level faced by highschool dropouts -highschool dropouts – lowest earners -mass education= form of collective wealth serves the bases for future wealth The Rise of Mass Schooling -4 factors account for the spread of mass schooling  Development of printing press=inexpensive book production  The Protestant Reformation  The spread of democracy  Industrialism -books were expensive b/c scribes were the only source of new copies. New printing press= fall in price and explosion in numbers -new printed books were in vernacular- languages used by common folk and not in Latin that only scholars understood. Literacy spread, demand to teach children reading in schools -early 16 century- Martin Luther a German monk criticized the Catholic Church. Protestants grew. They started reading scriptures for themselves= spur to popular literacy -political democracy led to free education of children. Tax supported schools arose -France established universal manhood suffrage in 1848 giving men the right to vote, france expanded education before England -universal white male suffrage led to local tax-based funding of public school system -earliest systems in= Upper Canada and Northern US in about 1870 -1900- Canada and US- first countries enrolment rates for children 5-14 exceeded 90 % -girls were enrolled same rate as boys in elementary education in Canada and US first Mass Schooling and National wealth -most imp reason for mass school= industrialization -necessity for creating industrial economy -industrial revolution began in England and Germany and US caught up -Germany had finest universities and were known for scientific research -investment in education=great national wealth -saudi Arabia has high income but modest level of education -education is not the only determining factor of national wealth -not a source of wealth but also a product of wealth The Functions of Education -unintended consequences arise from segregating people and forcing them to spend much time together -at higher levels educational institutes bring potential mates together- “marriage market”  Assortative mating: occurs when marriage partners are selected so that spouses are similar on various criteria of social rank -Also perform useful custodial service by keeping children under close surveillance -universities keep young people out of full time paid labor force restricting job competition and support wage levels -educational institutes become “schools of dissent” that challenge authoritarian regimes and promote social change. -Thus unintended functions include: growth of separate youth culture, assortative mating, custodial service, restrict job competition, support wage levels and schools of dissent. The Logic of Industrialism: -Functionalist approach argues:  Industrialism causes convergence-dictates social institutions develop to a common pattern  Industrialism requires application of science and technology in the economy  Science and technology are dynamic therefore work conditions constantly change  Industrialization requires an educational system functionally related to the skills and professions imperative to its technology  General education, devoting time on specialist as well as non-specialist training -reduced role of families -homogenization intensified when the minimum level of education required across the entire population ratchets up -Sorting intensified when more people participate in longer specialized training Cultural homogeneity, solidarity and nationalism Durkheim-  schooling creates cultural uniformity and social solidarity for young people  humans torn b/w egoistic needs and moral impulses  education should ensure moral side predominates  sense of authority, discipline and morality in children make society cohesive Ernest Gellner  mass education is basis for modern nationalism  nationalism refers to sentiments emphasizing or even favoring the view that humanity is divided into a limited number of populations defined by common culture, territory, and continuity within the kin group -homogeneity in outlook and skills, language was a central challenge Cultural Solidarity -culture= personal identity -imagined communities- sentiments of solidarity and identification with people who share particular cultural attributes. This blossoms into loyalty to the providers and defenders of such cultures -loyalties fixed on states b/c only they can afford the expense of mass education -Upper Canada led in providing and requiring education -Ontario pioneered compulsory education by fining parents with children aged 7 to 12 not attending school for 4 months each year -for some its not desired or chosen but just a burden by state -Mass education is one of the principal institutions that set industrial societies apart from their less wealthy predecessors and contemporaries -wars in 20 century reveal that citizens created by mass education are willing to kill and die in wars and schools are fertile recruiting grounds for wars -cohesion and civility by education= some tragic consequences Sorting into Classes and Hierarchies: Conflict Approaches - Functionalists and conflicts agree that education is a prelude to inequalities in work and manner of living but they differ on whether mass education results in class assignments that are just -functionalists argue that educational systems are central to defining and implementing the rules and channels by which people are sorted among
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