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Lecture 11

Lecture 11 - Apr. 4, 2013.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCA02H3
Professor
Ivanka Knezevic
Semester
Winter

Description
Final examination format - 2 hours - 80 multiple-choice questions (35% from lectures, 65% from readings) - 4 out of 6 short-answer questions – about one paragraph length, every other line (both lectures and readings) Society and the environment - Industrialization (including industrialization of agriculture), population growth, and consumption habits/levels of populations influence environmental quality. - Canadians consumer 1.24 times more energy per capita than Americans, 2.88 times more than EU residents, 7.6 times more than Chinese, 27.87 times more than Africans. - Causes: more single-person households, large and increasing size of dwellings (10% larger than in the 1990s), multiplication of small appliances, lack of public transit, increasing number of SUVs and minivans (40% vehicle sales), energy- intensive extractive economy, lack of energy conservation. Environmental sociology - Subject matter: “socio-environmental dialectic,” aspects of societies that have environmental impact; assessment of social projects necessary to improve environmental quality. - Environment is considered both as a physical and socio-cultural (symbolic) phenomenon. - Problematizes the concept of progress, by calling attention to environmental damage caused by economic growth. - Ironically, environmental activism is enabled by a long period of economic prosperity in developed countries, which gave rise to post-materialism among the middle class. Sustainable development - Bruntland Commission. 1987. “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” 1. Perseveration of non-renewable resources (environmental scarcity) and 2. Preservation of environmental quality. - Improvements in the economic conditions in undeveloped countries are needed to avoid ecological disaster. - It includes some level of equality and social justice. - Critique: it still advocates development. May be unrealistic. 1 1972. The Limits to Growth - Modeling of unchecked economic and population growth with finite resources st (cf. Warriner). Environmental collapse by the mid- or late 21 c. unless action is taken. Technological and social solutions to problems. - 1974. Mankind at the Turning Point: a more optimistic prognosis: many of the factors are within human control, therefore environmental and economic catastrophe i
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