SOCA02H3 Lecture Notes - Demographic Transition, Moral Panic, Black Death

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Sociology
Course
SOCA02H3
Professor
Page:
of 3
Demography
o 1850: Population was 1 billion
Limited by starvation, disease and war
o 2000: Population was 6 billion
14th century: population dips from famine to black death)
How many is too many?
o The Malthus Theorem: if births go unchecked, the population will outstrip the
food supply
Food supply would fall below population. Population geometric and vice
versa
Population Determinants:
o Fertility (2.1=replacement level)
o Mortalitydeaths
o Migration people moving in and out
First Population Explosion
o Takes place in the West; tied to industrialization in the West
o Explained by: demographic transition
Demographic Transition Theory
o Diagram in book
o There’s a critical gap: birth rates going up and death rate falling
2nd Population Explosion
o Post WW2 in the “South”
Peaks in 1970s
Without sophisticated medicine, most of them wouldn’t
surviveoh
Lead to predictions of 16 billion or more
2 population problems
o North: aging populations
Consequences:
o South: Malthusian scenarios
Unsustainable growth:
South: Surprise reversal
o Population growth starts to decline in late 1970s
Fertility rate drops from 6-4 in two decades (2.1=stable population)
BUT: Demographic momentum
o These kids are going to reproduce too
Political Agenda: population on and off the agenda
o 1960s moral panic
Limits to growth Ur
Population bomb
Paul Ehrlich vs. Julian Simon (economists)
Population Impact Formula
o = size X affluence X technology
o Size
o Affluence
o Technology
Population control
o Chinas one child policy
o US radical right oppose birth control in UN etc
o Educate and empower
Population Driven Conflicts
o Lyndon Johnson
There are three billion people in tehw orld they want what they have
World Population: 1750-2100canadians were below replacement or just around it
Next slideshow
Urban themes
o Tensions
o Are alive
o Polarized view
Cities
o Cities are relatively large, densely populated, permanent settlements in which most
reisdents do not produce their own food
Implication:
Pre-Industrial City (Middle Ages)
o Population around 20 000
Rome (350 k, when it ruled)
Southern cities (rich is…)
o Often akin to pre- or early industrial cities
o Rapid growth
Extreme poverty and pollution
Segregation of the poor
o “southern mass migrations from the countryside
Shanytowns
Built of salvaged material
No infrastructure
Burgess’s Concentric Zone Model
o Zone 1 “central business district
o Department stores, theatres, hotels, banks and office space
o Zone 2 “Zone of transition
Cheap housing for each new immigrant wave and illegal activities
o Zone 3 “Zone of working men’s homes”
Second-genrantion immigrants
o Zone 4 “Zone of Better Residences”
Middle-class people
o Zone 5 “Commuter Zone”
Suburbs and satellite towns
Urban ecology
o Cities alive
o Competition for space

Document Summary

Demography: 1850: population was 1 billion. Limited by starvation, disease and war: 2000: population was 6 billion. 14th century: population dips from famine to black death) How many is too many: the malthus theorem: if births go unchecked, the population will outstrip the food supply. Population determinants: fertility (2. 1=replacement level, mortality deaths, migration people moving in and out. First population explosion: takes place in the west; tied to industrialization in the west, explained by: demographic transition. Demographic transition theory: diagram in book, there"s a critical gap: birth rates going up and death rate falling. 2nd population explosion: post ww2 in the south . Without sophisticated medicine, most of them wouldn"t surviveoh. Lead to predictions of 16 billion or more. 2 population problems: north: aging populations. South: surprise reversal: population growth starts to decline in late 1970s. Fertility rate drops from 6-4 in two decades (2. 1=stable population) But: demographic momentum: these kids are going to reproduce too.