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SOCA02H3 (398)
Lecture 4

Week 4.docx

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Sheldon Ungar

Week 4 Bureaucracy  Weber: as most efficient type of 2ndary groups,  When someone says bureaucracy: automatically assume bunch of clerks in court working, small cubicles, and endless trails of ‘red tape’ that create needless waste an dfrustrate the goals of clients. The idea that bureaucracies are efficient may be odd.  Why weber says efficient? He was comparing it with older organizational forms. That is basis of either rtraditional practice or charisma of leaders. And we must recognize weber through bureaucracies could operate properly in ideal case.  Dehumanization: bureaucracies treat clients as standard cases and personel as cogs in giant machine. This treatment frustrates clients an dlower worker morale  Bureaucratic ritualism: involves bureacts becoming so preoccupied with rules that they make it difficult for the organization to fulfill its goals  Oligarchy: rule of the few, supposed for power to become increaisly concentrated hands of a few people at the top organization group.  two factors bureaucratic ineffieciency : size and social structure. Larger the bureaucracy: more difficult to function. Social structure is based on hierarchy, bureaucracy has a head, the power of the staff increases etc. Textbook 3 factors reason what motive *to kill them (schindler’s list) 1. Norms of solidarity demand conformity: , when with friends and family we build norms of solidarity. 2. Structures of authority tends to render people obedient ( people have hard time to disobey authorities b/c they fear ridicule punishment) 3. Bureaucracies are highly effective structures of authority . Bureaucracy: large, impersonal organization comprising many clearly defined positions arranged in a herarchy. A bureaucracy: permenant, salaried staff qualified experets, to find ways to run it efficiently. Lecture: Division of labour  A good thing, o Hierarchy of authority  Someone has to command, o You need rules and regulations o Qualification-based employment o Impersonality  Social Network  Bounded set of individuals who are linked by the exchange of material or emotional resources. Patterns of exchange determine boundaries of the network. It may be formal or informal (based on practice)  Unit of analysis or nodes in a network can be individuals, groups, organizations and important.  Example: finding a job: strong ties with close friends and family to provide you? Or weak ties?  Granovetter: weak ties are more important than strong because more effort is placed on weaker ties, and more information can be provided to you about the job in clear.  Urban network: community marked by intimnate and emotionally intense largely by self interest like big city in a society By Tonnies. Building Blocks Social Network  Two examples: DIAD: according to Simmel any interaction nerves . 2 units interact : diad interaction 2 basic character = 1 essntial equality 2 all highly invested instruction … Keep the essential characteristics. Second : 2. Tiad: stable characteristics.. unequal 3 person into group = open equal power to all party ..3 people = decision can be made which cannot exist  Dyadidc: make up social networks ar ebased on regular patterns of social exchange. In stable dyadic relationshps, people give each other things they want and need . So long as these relationsho satisfy their needs, people stay in these relationships  Triad: initensity & intimacy reduced, restrict individualiy by allowing a partner to be constrained rd for collective good, coalitions possible, 3 party mediation conflict between two , and rivarliy. Divide & conquer strategy, shift respinsibitly to largely collective. 3 nodes relationship. Primary & secondary group  Social group: comprises oen or more networks of ppl who identify with one another and adhere to define norms, roles and status.  Social category: Sets of people who do not interact but have a shared characteristics , Significance of categories is socially constructed (racial groups)  Note: also structurally based  Primary Groups: 1 small face to face interaction , subjectively important to members, long duration  Secondary groups: Informal and formal social groups: rules, organization formal organization with specialtiy actively (tepperman : goal) members will not be viably important audience in concert, religious groups. Informal group vs formal group: Inofrmal: no written rules. Formal: written rules (secondary groups_  Group Conformity: integral part of group, primary group life to generate more pressure to conform than do secondary group. Strong social ties create emotional intimacy , they also ensure that primary group memebrs share similar attitude, beliefes and information.  Like WW2: study of power of conformity to get people to face extreme danger.  Like “asch experiment”: by Solomon Asch: how group pressure creates conformity, 7 men , and 1 was experimental, other 6 was were asch’s confederates. Experimenting card game. Likelihood increases group size increases three or four members, group cohesiveness increase, and social status affects.  Disadvantage of Group Conformity: Groupthink: group pressure to conform despite individual misgivings. Dangers of group think are greatest in high stress situation. Group conformity, Group Conflict and Group Inequality  Functionalist: ignore conflicts within groups can avert disaster and ignore ways in which group conformity encourages conflict and reinforces inequality  Ingroup: memebrs are ppl who belong to group, Outgroup: memebrs are ppl who are excluded from an in group  Group boundaries emerge when people compete for scarce resources like old immigratns and new immigrants compete for jobs.  “robbers’ cave study” two groups of 11 yr old to summer camp , were strangers to one another and for about a week two groups were kept apart. Each group came to hodl the other in low esteem, and eventually boys draw together quickly  Dominant Groups: functionalist: increase the means by which individual sare mobilized to achieve group goals. Conflict: caution us to recognize that too much conformity can be dangerous.  Conformity: group norms = functional, to mobilize and achieve goals, or can be dangerous in the ability to think ‘outside the box’ and be problematic to increase social inequality. Groups & Social imaginzatino  Reference group: comprises ppl against whom an individual evaluates his or her situation or conduct.  Exercise our imagination vigoursly to participate in the group life of a society like ours be.c much social life in a copmplex society involves belonging to secondary groups without knowing or interacting with most groups memebrs.  Canada as ‘imagined community’ , they are imagined b/c you cannot possibly meet most members of the group and can only speculate about what they must be like.  Formal organization: secondary groups designed to achieve explicit objectives   Mcdonalidization of Society—George Ritzer o Efficient, calculable, predictable  Automated, no surprises, fast-track  Military, clinics and etc.,  Ambivalence to Bureaucracy o Red tape, ritualism  Unintended effects o Iron cage o Alienation o Chickenshit  In the military, they use spit and polish inspections or others  Shaving kits have to be perfectly clean  Departures from Efficiency o Goal displacement  SOPS- standard operating procedures  “satisfying” solutions  Plea-bargaining  Information cutoffs—it’s when you have information flowing upwards but you cut it off at a certain points, because people don’t want to hear or you might get in trouble Techniques of behavorial control  Film on taylorism and scientific management o Clockwork o Deskill work  Remove control from workers  Vs. craftsmen  Seek speed and efficiency  Rise of informal organization o Workers develop culture and norms independent of formal structure o Resistance  Productivity norms- not written, but they’re present among the workers  “rate busters” – push the norms up  Underworld of institution  Sabotage—working harder, so you hide it  Taking a break—workers don’t like to be yelled at and etc., Textbook: Bureacracy Informal  Weber focused on formal structure or chain of command in a bureaucracy. He didn’t pay much on social network that underlie the chain of command  Social networks and operation of bureacries goes back in 1930  Informal interaction is common in highly bureaucratic organizaitno. A water cooler, for example can be a place of echanging infomratino an dgossip and even a place for decision making Leadership  Brings bureaucratic performance. Least effective leader allows suboridn
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