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SOCA02 - Week 9 - March 14, 2013.docx

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Sheldon Ungar

SOCA02 – Week 9 – March 14, 2013 Health and Society Health: UN Definition - A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being - What could this really mean? o 1 in 4 suffer mental illness in lifetime o Aging and nuisance afflictions Health is as much social as biological - Related to o Social inequalities o Technology o Social resources  Rich or poor o Social constructionism Life Expectancy over Time - 1900s – Barely over 50 years old - Now – Around 80 for men and older for women - We eat better, live in better conditions Health and Stratification - Rich live upstream o Toronto VS countryside o Race  Related to poverty & toxic sites  Blacks in the US have high cancer rate  They live near toxic sites in poverty - Example: Ancient Rome o Rich lived higher up in the city (living up stream) o The poor would live near the stream where everyone dumped their stuff (sewage; poop, pee and etc) - Income and Obesity o Bottom 20%, 5 times top 20%  Bottom 20% - Less money live on carbohydrates as it is cheaper - Gender o Drug Testing  “Fact: 51% of the Canadian population are female. Yet only 5% of all health research funds in Canada goes directly to women’s health.” Disease Ecology - “We are major engineers of viral traffic, but are unaware of it” o Pathway: Ex. Dengue  This used to not be in humans, people dug up fields where mice lived, mice moved into the house and they carried Dengue Fever - Population Density o Viruses need a reservoir or die out  The live in something, if they are destroyed then the move to the next thing they can live on (Humans) o Stepping off a plane  Dangerous o Ships  The virus goes around the ship and after everyone is infected it dies - War… o Napoleon  Lot more troops to disease than to fighting  Terrible quarters, diseases spread like crazy o 1918 Spanish Flu  Wasn’t caused by WW1 but came right after WW1 ended  Killed 50 – 100 million people  Went all the way up to the North of America, first identified in Spain Scientific Control of Disease Past Century - US Surgeon General in 1987 claims contagious disease will be wiped out o Vaccines o Antibiotics Overstate the Role of Science - Vs. Social Factors TB Death Rates over Time - TB is gone mostly because of Antibiotics but the rate was already declining before the introduction of antibiotics Daily Dosing For AID: As a Chronic Disease - Disruptive, Intrusive - Costly - Many not Beyond Science - Improved Nutrition o Adequate, safe food  Refrigeration  Cooking at high temperature - Improved Hygiene o Plumbing o Clean Water o Bathing In other words… - Rich is better Social Resources and Actions (Rich vs. Poor) - TB o Deaths worldwide?  3 million a year; usually occurs in the poorer areas of the world - MDR; Multiple Drug Resistance (Antibiotic resistance) o New York – Contained o Russia - Moscow o Have MDR TB – They don’t watch the patients eat the medication o People need to eat all their antibiotics in order to get better Antibiotic Resistance Social Vs Medical - Bacteria inevitably develop some Resistance o Ex. Penicillin Antibiotic Resistance - Medical/Biological o Bacteria inevitably develop some resistance - Social – Social Overuse o Use in factory farming o Overprescribe to patients Global Anti-Polio Campaign - Why conduct it? o Polio was the disease to fear - Why does it continue to fail? o We are close to wiping it out but it hasn’t been wiped out because of resistance in some places. They had planned to completely wipe it up by 2000. Social Construction of Health & Illness - Focus on individual behaviour o Vs Social Conditions - Mummies had – blocked arteries, multiple sclerosis - Cancer o Smoking o Diet  Very limited o Exercise  Very Limited; Louis Armstrong has Testicular Cancer and he was already on his way to being a world champion o Personality  Ultimate one Questions about Cancer - How much do lifestyle factors predict?
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