SOCA02H3 Lecture Notes - Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Surgeon General Of The United States, Antimicrobial Resistance

25 views9 pages
Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Sociology
Course
SOCA02H3
Professor
SOCA02
Health: UN definition
- A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being
- What could this really mean?
o 1 in 4 suffer mental illness in lifetime
Health is as much social as biological
- Related to
o Social inequalities
o Technology
o Social resources
o Social constructionism
We construct a lot of health and illness
Life expectancy over time
Health and stratification
- Rich live upstream
o When river was going through city, wanted to live upstream of this
Poor people had dumping in their water
Living upstream = the richer you are
o Toronto vs. countryside
People are healthier in the city
Tend to live longer
In countryside, there are pesticides, carcinogens
In city there is high-tech medicine
o Race
Related to poverty poorer live near toxic sites
Blacks have higher death rates because they tend to live near toxic sites
- Income and obesity
o Bottom 20% tend to be 5x more likely to be obese than the top 20%
Same with heart attacks, etc.
Bottom 20% diet is worst, tend to live on carbohydrates
Richer people tend to have gym memberships; more access to working
out, trainers, etc.
- Women died more of open-heart surgery
o Men had bigger arteries, etc.
Disease ecology
- We create a lot of diseases
- “we are major engineers of viral traffic but are unaware of it”
o Pathways: e.g. dengue
Used to be non-existent in humans
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Is now in humans because in Southern Americas got rid of fields where
mice lived; they started moving into houses and carried dengue fever
When in a field, people have little contact with mice
Species lose homes and go around to find food
- Population density
o Viruses need a reservoir or die out
Viruses are more deadly
Usually live in a species of some sort
E.g. monkeys
o When they are killed and eaten jump to humans
o Stepping off a plane…
If there was a virus on a ship and is out on water for 2 weeks
Once it hits everyone on the ship, loses reservoir and dies
Viruses don’t die off anymore in travel because travelling is so fast
Move mosquitoes all over the world through tires always water in the
tires. This is how dengue gets around
o We create pathways
- War
o Napoleon
Lost more troops to disease than to fighting
Men are in close quarters unhygienic, bad conditions and close qurters
o 1918 Spanish Flu
Killed between 50-100 000 people in the world
Scientific Control of Disease past century
- US Surgeon General in 1967 claims contagious diseases will be wiped out…
o Vaccines
o Antibiotics
Medical miracles at the time
Antibiotics works at first but diseases come back stronger
Shift in epidemiology
- 1880 1991
o Leading causes of death are different at these times
o Pneumonia is the only one during both times
- Cause for deaths contagious diseases to slow killing diseases
- Cancer, stroke, heart attack, diabetes
Overstate the role of science
- Vs. social factors
TB death rates over time
- One of the reasons it is gone is because of antibiotics
- Antibiotics become wide-spread used by 1950
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o TB was already in free fall without science other things went on
o Antibiotics did not end it
Beyond science/medicine…
- Improved nutrition
o Adequate, safe food
Refrigeration
Cooking at high temperatures
- Improved hygiene
o Clean water
o Plumbing
o Bathing
In other words… rich is better
- Same with pollution rich nations able to clean up while third-world cannot
- Can clean up better, can afford more, have healthcare as backup
Social resources and actions (rich vs. poor)
- TB…
o Deaths worldwide
o ~3 million a year - Tends to occur in poorer parts of the world
- MDR (antibiotic resistance) multiple drug resistance
o New York contained
Epidemic was contained since it is a richer city
o Russia
Still have MDR TB
Treated with a lot of antibiotics akin to chemo
Suppress immune systems for transplant body will not reject drug
o To get better, need to get sick first
o Antibiotics are bad for TB
When starting and stopping, virus keeps coming back
- Not as much money comes in with antibiotics, therefore, drug companies make drugs for
widespread use not for sick people make more money that way
- Observed therapy watch you take the drug. Even give a free meal
- Suppress immune system so body will not reject drug but it is easier for diseases
Antibiotic resistance social vs. medical
- Bacteria inevitably develop some resistance
- Can take up to 2 weeks of treatment for antibiotics
- Social social overuse
-
Prophylactic
Used as contraceptive
- Use In factory farming
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. What could this really mean: 1 in 4 suffer mental illness in lifetime. Related to: social inequalities, technology, social resources, social constructionism. We construct a lot of health and illness. Rich live upstream: when river was going through city, wanted to live upstream of this. Poor people had dumping in their water. Living upstream = the richer you are: toronto vs. countryside. Related to poverty poorer live near toxic sites. Blacks have higher death rates because they tend to live near toxic sites. Income and obesity: bottom 20% tend to be 5x more likely to be obese than the top 20% Bottom 20% diet is worst, tend to live on carbohydrates. Richer people tend to have gym memberships; more access to working out, trainers, etc. Women died more of open-heart surgery: men had bigger arteries, etc.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.