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Lecture

SOCA02 Lec 8.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCA02H3
Professor
Sheldon Ungar
Semester
Winter

Description
SOCA02 Lec 8– Ch. 9 Inequality and development - In a period where level of inequality of income is more equal Wheel of fortune - Depression generation vs. baby boomers o How you start doesn‟t dictate how you will end up o Depression generation ended up rich  Passed on money to baby boomers  Baby boomers started really well and now experience has been reversed – baby boomers are out of jobs o Reverse early experiences  Many baby boomers are now losing jobs - Savage capitalism o Ruthless economy – creative destruction  Creates things but is also very destructive  Technology has taken away many middle-level jobs  Downsizing  Outsourcing Globalization - (aim at a) single transnational economy - Spread of a global culture - Increased global interdependence Transnational corporations - Of the 100 largest economies in the world o E.g. apple stuff – none is made in the states o 51 are corporations o 49 are countries - The top 200 corporations‟ combined sales are bigger than the combined GNPs of 182 countries - No loyalty to home country o “made in the world” - US multinational corporations, 2000s o Cut 2.9 million US jobs o Added 2.4 mill foreign jobs  Done for money and pay less - US „stealing‟ the world‟s doctors - Exploit workers in developing countries o Foxconn India - Outsource o Why? o English is the second language – good for outsourcing China - Global manufacturer o Companies locate there to produce  12% China‟s exports go to Wal-Mart - Why locate in China? o Cheaper, no laws (unions, etc.) Technological Revolution - Knowledge workers at the top o Constant pressure to update Computer chip capacity 1973-2000 - Power of computing has doubled every 2 years Redistribution of power - Weakened national state o Little power over TNC - Huge debts o Loss of currency control o People don‟t want tax increases (in the States) - Unions weakened too o US – 14% unionized in 1997 o Vs. 36% in 1945 - Power shifting to Asia – productivity of wealth o Luxury cars being sold at a higher percentage in Asia – other luxury products as well Effect on jobs - Early capitalism o De-skill (recall Taylorism) o Alienation on assembly line - Then human relations o Workers as most important “capital” o Concern with quality of working life Human relations - Created a tacit social contract (recall equity equation) - High productivity  shared wealth o When GM was doing well, workers expected benefits - Loyalty  job guarantees o Neither exists anymore o Jobs in life for Japan Now… - Under “guise” of globalization o End social contract o Delink corporate earnings (profit) from employee earnings Top 50 CEOs vs. Average worker - 1995: 85 x wages - 2007: 398 x wages o Golden parachute “Lean” production to compete - Downsize - Substitute bad jobs for good: “precarious employment” o Contract out - Later: outsource  Contract out to companies that‟ll do it longer and cheaper  Usually get immigrants – get no benefits  Hospital stays mum about it o De-skill- re-engineer with software o Part-time  Can get rid of people easily  Don‟t pay benefits - France – if you‟re making money, can‟t lay off workers o Won‟t work because other companies will become more efficient o If they can do it, companies may just move Downsized from 1980 – 2002 – Exxon, GM, Sears Upsized from 1980 to 2002 – McDs, Intel, Wal-Mart – Wal-Mart is the world‟s biggest employer Microsoft, 2004 - $37 billion divided o 3.5 billion to Bill G - Workers o Squeezed o No bonuses Entitlement to permanent job going…1990s panic over job loses - Workers in companies as – self-employed o Vendors selling own skills - Jobs replaced by – projects - „jobless‟ but not „workless‟ society o Contingent workers Worker‟s response - No loyalty, job switches, develop “tool kit” of (very specific) skills, home offices, sell “knowledge”, net enterprise Nation state (19 century version) - Well-defined borders - Sovereignty of the nation state - Monopoly
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