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SOCA02 Lecture 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

SOCA02 Lecture 2- Gender Stratification January, 17 , 2013  Historical perspective - gender inequality older than class inequality >example, hunting and gathering societies - vs. net hunting >women more equal than usually assumed (provided more protein)  studying gender inequality - women not brought in boats, conquered or colonized >not segregated or distinct in the way that other groups are >are barriers but are still part of the group - usa faced legal restrictions >cant sign for own loans (male has to sign for you), couldn’t get credit card without male, couldn’t open up business, couldn’t vote, couldn’t own property >treated like children  can we use “job model” - women allocated to the private sphere (home) vs men in the public sphere - women have more economic dependence on men >fathers, then spouse >more part time work >occupational segregation (“pink collar jobs”- a kind of job)  percentage of men and women in paid labour force (1946-2007) - many women worked during the war (men were fighting) so there was a peak - less than 20% women, 90% male worked in 47 - women increasing male decreasing  labour - labour force participation rose becase: >increased demand for service workers >a decrease in # of children/fam (dropped after war to 2) >increased financial pressure on families *necessary for middle class standing  occupational gender segregation - women do jobs that involve caregiving, house-hold type management functions - occupational sex segregation has decreased since 1960s >stewardess on airplanes=young pretty women, only worked for limited time (married or pregnant or over 30 were fired), now= not like that  ratio of female to male earnings (1980-2005) - married women don’t do well in careers (60) - never married do almost as well as men (90) - all are generally low (60)  status - women have lower status than men >defer more to men >get less recognition (men cut women off more than women cut men off) >lower status jobs *women more likely than men to play dumb because they didn’t want to show their men down - women’s status in borader socity determined more by males >whatever your father, husband was  power - women were powerless in broader society vs. home (domestic sphere) >later add church, charity, voluntarism >power in household?  Women in Canadian political parties, 1992 - local riding society is where females work the most - higher up in status, the less females work (candidate, legislator, cabinet minister)  unequal life chances - abortion (female fetuses aborted more than male, “100,000 times more”) >china, one child policy, generally want male >india >Canada - infanticide >china, maybe Greece (ppl cant afford kids) >female infanticide >dowry deaths (organized violence, by whole family not only husband *honour killings *widow burning (sometimes called “kitchen fires”) >sex slavery/rape *common *mostly east Europe, very poor when they went capitalist and told that they can get jobs, give them passport and sold to sex slavery >rape *WW2 when germans invaded east Europe, did a lot of raping *when soviets came back into Europe, WW2 won by soviets (not americans) when they got to berlin, surrounded city and raped every women from 9-90, germans being punished rape done to make ethnic races (child will live unequally) *biggest rape story: india, women was raped in a bus by 5 men, less women than men because of gender selection  countries of origin for human trafficking - high= central America, brazil, india, morocco  nobel prize - bare breasted women on nobel prize - marie curie >medical researcher >made it in time when most people didn’t >worked as nany to support sister to go to medical school >sister supported her to get her phD  women now - make up almost 60% uni grads - women with BAs making slightly more than men with BAs  accounting for gender differences - sex >biological and physical differences >chromosomes - gender >social and cultural conceptions of male and female  Eleanor maccoby and carol jacklyn - psychology of sex differences (1974) - tried to look at male and female differences - supported differences: >woman=verbal >men=spatial/math males=aggression - small differences but huge overlap >almost identical curves
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