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Lecture 2

lecture 2 (1).docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA02H3
Professor
Mc Kinon

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SOCA01 GLOBALIZATION Inst= institution SES= social economic status Conc= concentration Org= organization Prod= produce or production Sys=system Tech= technique or technology Ind=individual Research examples: A research observes why teenage pregnancy is rising. See graph. Teenage pregnancy has inc over the 50 yrs period. Same researcher observes that divorce rate has also increased over the last 50 yrs. These are descriptive trends analysis, not descriptive static. Are these two things related? Is divorce for instance related to teen pregnancy? Can we turn it into explanatory study? Hypothesis- as divorce rate inc, teenage pregnancy inc. hypothesis are explanatory, they show relationship among variables. Identify parents with teenage daughter. IV here is marital status (married or divorced) and teen pregnancy (yes or no). You must be able to manipulate the IVs. Collect the data on 100 married couple with teenage daughters. Also collected data on 100 divorced teenage daughters. Table used here is called contingency table. This table is easy to read. It gives info both horizontally and vertically. Vertically we see under divorce 75% become pregnant but 25% don’t. Thus, divorce is related to inc in teenage pregnancy. The table shows that our hypothesis is confirmed. Chapter 2 Contingency table – very useful tool, called cross classification involving two variables. Ex. in our case, teen pregnancy or marital status. Is marital status associated with teen pregnancy? First variable is dependent, other one is independent. This contingency table shows the positive relationship b/w divorce rate and teen pregnancy. See slide correlation. Gives us three types of relationships: first type called positive relationship -> As IV inc , dependent variable inc as well. Second one, negative relationship- as the IV inc , dependent variable dec. No correlation – no relationship b/w variables when the line is straight. Spurious correlation Eg. Hospitals and mortality (posted online) shows a Spurious Correlation: Ex. compared to home, more ppl die in hospitals so does that mean hospitals cause these death . Is there any correlation b/w hospitals and death rate/ mortality? Or is it bcz in hospitals beside doctors, nurses, cleaning stuff we find sick ppl, elderly, terminally ill, injured. Ppl who live in home by contrast are old, young, some sick but mostly health ppl live at homes. So when we are doing research, we wanna find out do hospitals cause death? So we perform a CONTROL- take out from hospital list all the sick ppl that already live in hospitals; when you calculate correlation you take that group of ppl out bcz u dunt find those ppl living at home. So when you recalculate the correlation, the correlation disappears and this is wht spurious correlation is and if it disappears, we know that something else is causing the relationship namely those ppl who you took out of correlation. Thus, more deaths happen in hospital bcz ppl in hospitals are already very sick. That is why they die and it is a not hospital that kills them. E.g. historical manipulations of CO2 levels (posted online) – a global warming hypothesis says as CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere increases, GLOBAL TEMP INCREASES SO THERE IS A POSITIVE RELATION B.W INC AMT OF co2 AND INC TEMPERATURE. So is this relationship true or might it be spurious? Is warming for instance caused by something else and if you can control for something else, does the relationship disappear? One hypotheses says that global warming is causes by sun spots- when there are spots on sun, the sun burns hotter; the more spots you see, the hotter the sun burns During the little iceage- from 1650 to 1850; virtually no sun spots which means that the sun is cooler however from 1970 to 1988, there were large number of sun spots and temp went up; well bfr ice age, there was medieval warm period- when global temp were very warm; from 800 to 1300; when Vikings settles in green land which they called wine land- called bcz it was very green; you could farm it; the Vikings also settled in Newfoundland; the co2 levels were low in green land yet temp were very warm over this period of time; then little ice age called the maunder minimum 1560-1630 - the globe got covered with ice soo Vikings had to leave green land and newfoundland as growing season was short; couldn’t farm; co2 levels stayed same as they were in warm period; called maunder bcz he was a scientist and observed that spots disappeared virtually; 1940 -1970- temps were cold during this time; rapid inc in co2 if we have a cooling period that lasts 30 yrs 1970-1995; global warming hypotheses is confirmed; temp rise and so does co2 levels 1995-2011; temp have leveled off globally; since 1995 no statistical increase in temp levels; temp have cooled off Warming and co2 (in e.g. online) Paleo climate- period in which ice sheet was all over NA. America went down as far as Mississippi; during many ice ages in past, co2 levels were 100 times higher than they are today and the planet was locked in ice; the last ice age ended 12000 yrs ago; human civilization emerged at the end of last ice age but for some reasons we just dunt understand. Since 12000; various warming and cooling periods; The weakest of all hypotheses is the co2 hypotheses. Opposition of international environmental groups opposes tarsands- oil locked in sands bcz they say it produces too much co2 No evidence that co2 causes global warming, the whole idea is to us of our oil sand reserves in canada as they will give us wealth. Correlation b/w global warming and co2 is spurious in one time period in history Global warming ppl argue that when global warming increases ice melts, sea level rises, over last 3 yrs sea levels have fallen. Be aware that not everybody agrees with it. B- GLOBALIZATION (CHP 9) Marshall mclauhan- communication guru or expert in 1960s and 70s; scholar that gave the term global village- globe today has many similarities with village of traditional society; ppl who live in villages their way of living at world is “parochial”- don’t see anything bcz they don’t know anything abt things that exist beyond the village they were born and lived in; peter laslet- wrote a book “ the world we have lost” and talks abt medieval England- England in middle ages; tells us that ppl born in villages in medieval times, the longest trip they made in a lifetime averages 5 miles; ppl die where they were born and that world has been lost; Slide on causes and consequences of global warming (intranet) Communication: communication technology i.e material culture; economic activity- inc in productivity; political inst increasingly become global and so does economic inst- argument is these 3 ind variables influence a dependent variable i.e symbolic culture e.g. language, views; the globe is headed towards a single symbolic culture. Communication is linked to economic activity, and global institution. These prod single symbolic culture. We will talk about changes in tech or material culture over time. 1) Transportation tech – Land – tech is using science to make machine. Tools are ex of material culture. Transportation tech has evolved in connection with land. Consensus human first evolve in Africa and went across the globe. They went on foot. Thus, it took tens thousands of years. The consensus is that first human arrived in NA came from asia from Bering sea , bcz sea level fell 100 of meters so we will see island connecting Asia with Canada & NA. During ice age, you could walk across the land bridge. So, from Asia these pple arrived in NA on foot. They then migrated to southern trip and this took thousands of yrs. If we look at the dna of some west coast aboriginal groups. Their dna contain part of asia, Europe & from part of Siberia. We have to move pple around in globalization. After walking on foot, these pple use animals e.g. horses, camels etc. Silk route link china to Europe. Other improvement on land came after, mechanize the transportation. The train is a machine. They estimated the horse power of these automobile. In NA, all transportation was by horses. Somebody invented the automobile for the serious problem of horse ship. Tech transportation – preserve in the same way. Pear Burton said the definition of Canadian who can make love in a canoe. Canoe is a Canadian mean of transportation. It can travel in relatively shallow water. After the canoe, transportation by water in 60s took off. It took 60 days for sales ship to cross the Atlantic. Then came the machines which were faster than sales. By the time of titanic, 60 days were cut down to 5 days. The reason why titanic sunk was human pride and tech failure. Titanic was called the
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