SOC02 – Lec 3
Lean production – prod @ lowest possible cost, flexible work force.
Just in time inventory- money tied up in equipment that won’t be used for
months. After Steve job left apple, company founder was having a bad time, they
end up starting a new company. Apple was not doing well without Steve jobs. He
discovered apple had two months of inventory on hand. He cut that down to 2
days. This theory was pioneered by Japanese. Employees sensitive to quality-
meaning employees are taught to be sensitive to quality. TQM ( total quality
management) - Japanese pioneered this term. Labor union resists TQM because
it require the workers to work with management. But management is not found
of that instead they want workers to stay arm distance from them. This is worker
management antagonism. Electronic surveillance @ work place – cameras are
watching you. Employers can put cameras in wash room. Panaptican – use to be
design of early prisons. Guard tower – where guards can see prisoner @ all time.
Prisoner are never out of sight. The idea is that if you know u are being watched,
u are more likely to behave, same principle apply to employs. AWT ( actual
working time) - this is a form of electronic surveillance. E.g. for employs who work
on computer are being monitored. They put software into the computer which
keeps track of when u stop working. When workers are aware of that, workers
don’t slack off. Many argue that economic globalization erodes the power of
national governments. So financial muscle of these huge national cooperates
undermine the nation’s state. International capital is not accountable to workers.
This is more kinda argument on left. National government loose power to
international. Free trade is becoming increasingly popular. National governments
use to protect domestic industries e.g. one time in Canada there was driving textile and a shoe industry , now those industries are gone, bcz free trade means
betrayal. This is also kinda protectionism; basically you protect home grown
industry. When u get rid of this protectionism, u loose out in some section by
cheaper imports. National gov also has to care about environmental regulation,
bcz if there are too many environmental laws, it cost too much. If wages are too
high, then company can always say to u that u don’t listen our demands we are
moving u somewhere else. We got work place safety laws. if they are too strict,
they cost company too much money. Workers are giving ultimatum like take it or
be gone. Financial center like New York, Tokyo and London have big financial
banks. Intentional know no loyalty. Ex Microsoft – few yrs ago gave order to train
over sees workers. Pple on the left dislike capitalism most are communist not
many left after soviet. China mostly follows capitalism rules , very few communist
party left there. International trade lowers prices significantly for consumers. So
thus we have places like Wal-Mart, major retailers, Samsung etc. Consumers are
pple in market driven society and it reduce prices. Huge tran national co
operations are beyond political control. Nortel was a huge cooperation, their
stokers were worthless & executives were charged with fraud. Bernie Ebbers
went to jail for life. White collar executive went to prison for life. Bernie Madof
paid return rate of 10% of interest on investment. This was a fraud and he served
life sentence. International elite comes with globalization. Financiers are money
men and are “wall street types”. Senior employers in global cooperation are
international economic elite. Communication turns entertainment pple into
global celebrity e.g Tom cruise, Nicole Kidman, soccer players e.g Renaldo, David
bekham, Cobia Bryant, lebron James, yao ming and hockey players like valdimir
klitskcko. Cricket after soccer is most globalizing. Baseball comes behind cricket.
Pple on the left tends to ignore global political institution e.g UN. Global politics
had undermined national sovereignty. So have org like EU (European Union). UN
formed during Second World War. UNICEF is a global charitable org. UNICEF has
worst record of charatable fund. Ceo of uniceff perceive 1.2 million an year + all
expenses. When you plan to donate always ask wht proportion of money will
actually go to poor? A lot of charitable org like Oakridge recreation center which
provide breakfast to needy children give 100% of their money to charity. Their
administration is run by volunteers. Another best chartable org is Salvation Army – 90% goes to poor. UN is bad – 50% only goes to charity; big proportion goes to
administration. Political globalization undermines nation state just as much as
economic globalization. why so? Particular in EU countries, members are
subjected to European parliament; these are unelected pple. Pple on the outside
say in capitalism pple who invest are not responsible and neither is the high court
in European Union. Merit and demirt s of globalization are not raised. Branch of
UN committee is against torture. UN once telling Canada over a case that u can’t
deport this individual bcz if u did, he will be receiving torture. These UN members
are not elected. In fact, these themselves are torturing. In Canada, we have
Global culture – single symbolic global culture. Does globalization prod single
global symbolic culture? Many pple think globally today. Many say it began in
1961 when Neil Armstrong through Apollo program went to the moon and took
the pic of earth and present the earth against the blackness of space. Pple start
calling it spaceship.. How consciousness evolved over time?
Our conscious -> houshold ->the kinship group-> band-> clan-> tribe and finally
move to feurdal village ->feudal kanton-> nation state.
Nation state is main political unit that is found in world today. NS has its own
defined economy. Boarders are protected. It has its own money. In Legal sys and
weights measures – we see a hybrid b.w metric and empirical. But in the middle
of 20 century, global conscious arrive by technology. Globe is developing single
symbolic culture. Environmental movement is emerging especially towards global
warming. UN takes a leading role. IPCC is riddle with corruption. AMC
international takes care of human right. Global culture provides 2 thesis –
hybridization thesis and the homogenization thesis.
Hybrid is a mix of diff elements. Homogenization means same proportion. Is
global culture hybrid or homogenize?
McDonaldization – this is representation of homogenization and formation of
single global culture. It operates same everywhere. When pple talk about homogenization, they refer to influence of US. US has most powerful military.
They spend a lot of money on its military. We keep a McDonald model in mind for
homogenization and it is pushed by US bcz of its largest economy, largest military
and largest culture influence. Soft power – e.g. movies , music. Hard power - e.g.
military. Coca colonization – has spread American culture throughout the world.
Idea of democracy and human rights are becoming global. MTV , CNN , Disney ,
Hollywood movie and American icon are seen everywhere. Homogenization
overstates the case; America has too much influence. However, @ some places
America is held with suspicion, fear, and hostility. Homogenization overstates the
influence of America.
Return of ethnic separatism: globalization shud mean disappearance of ethinism
but we do see return of concept of ethnic identity. Old sovereign union in 1988
collapse, we saw that the country break up along the ethnic lines. Communism
collapse in ugasalvia; country ended up breaking into ethnic groups. These ethnic
groups are so strong that they cause ethnic cleansing. Ethnic cleansing means
killing mem of one ethnic group and they killing your members back. In Rwanda,
we saw two ethnic groups killing each other. Thus hybridization has more merit.
Means global culture will remain mixture of both. That is wht