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SOCA02 lec 1.docx

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Mc Kinon

Topic: METHORDS Inc= increase Pple= people Hpo= hypothesis Ex= example Technology comes from science. Sociology came very later. Sociologist used scientific method. Scientific approach cant answer all questions e.g meaning of life , unmove mover (fist cause of universe), after death, soul and question like why there is something instead of nothing. Religion deals with ultimate question. Science deals with empirical or factual questions – evidence which is obtained by scientific method. “The big Band Theory” – explains how the universe came along but before big bang it wasn’t like there was nothing. According to philosophy, something never comes from nothing. Religion is used to explain thing before big bang . “Empirical Inequity” - ? . Experiences determines how we see reality as the “experience filters reality” & the experience refers to culture. Values determine what problem is there to investigate. E.g conflict theorist determines inequality like problem. Feminist try to determine feminine research. Lack of objectivity or the presence of biases called filter. Subjective elements are involved. How to filter by research: values , outlook, theories and previous research and methods used are all “filters”. In everyday, biases are mostly incorrect conclusions. Sociologists observe data and reduce biases but can’t eliminate it. It is also found in natural sciences – called assumptions. Type of studies undertaken: 1) Descriptive studies - Static = specific point in time e.g photograph. not interested in the relation but deals with the trend - Trend = studying over the years 2) Explanatory studies Static Example: 1) Infant mortality rate (> 6 months ) in Canada in 2011 was 4.92infants/ 1000 birth Low society has high infant mortality rate 2) Number of murder in Toronto in 2009 = 62 3) Population in Scarborough in 2010 = 593,000 Trend Example: 1) Divorce rate in 2002-2011 has gone up from 15% to 50% 2) Divorce rate from 1952 has been increasing. It just give u the numbers, no explanation . Women have economic independence, no need to marry. Women initiating divorce proceeding. Explanatory Example: Explains relationships between facts 1) Parent income is associated with uni attendance. The higher it is, students are more likely to attend. Social class is a solid prediction of offspring 2) Pple who live in cities, more likely to commit suicide than the pple in town. 3) Inc mortality rate of infant is due to wealthy pple. Wealthy get special prenatal and post natal care. Poor has little time to care for kids. 4) When economy improves , crime rate goes down. Unemployed pple become desperate and commit crime. Reason of death penalty was abolish but exception cases are like Paul Bernado. 70% Canadians said Paul Barnado should have been hanged. Statistics and empirical studies ( explanatory) says , death penalty doesn’t deter murder. Ex in US, state controls the death penalty and states that do have death penalty is no different from the ones that don’t have it. Explanatory tells why something happens. Descriptor tells us the figures. Both studies use to develop social policy .Social accounting is found in census form & it gives us the trend. An aging society – people above 65 has become way more and young individuals are very less . European societies are aging societies. Why have we become aging society? First pple live longer. Life expectancy keeps on increasing. During WWII towards the end of the war, men left and when came back home, they got reacquainted. Right after world war, there was a baby boom. Demographer- pple who study population found this trend. Baby boomers from 1945-55. During ten year period, babies everywhere. This created a bulge. When boomer become children, we have to build the schools, universities etc. Now there are more pensioners. It will grow for next few years also. Feds are going to be broke. Tax payers are smaller and pensioners are high. So we have to make policy based on evidence. Thus, pensioners plan needs to be change. E.g when we will become old, no limit of retirement age. Bumping the age limit of retirement from 65->67->70, as government want to save money. Descriptive and social accounting gives information to make policy. Also allows you to predict to prepare for those things. Sociologist have tools for scientific method : 1) Micro Tool 2) Macro Tool Concepts is a label, use to indentify similar process and things. Concert album is made around concept. “Value” – best selling album of all time. Common concept – education, alienation, term that stand for something. Alienation has sub concept. People are powerless in modern world. Modern life lacks meaning, all about social education, self estrangement. Norm- culturally defined rule. Every science has its own concept, status, father, mother, lawyer, social class – has three sub concepts: education, occupation, and income. All scienc
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