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Lecture 3

SOCA02- Lecture 3.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

SOCA02- Lecture 3 - modernization theory of development: industrialization fosters labour force participation and rationalism, which foster decline in fertility - cultural lag: cultural norms maintain high fertility - 1 demographic transition: change from low and stable population of pre-industrial societies to growing population of industrial societies nd - 2 demographic transition: change from growing population of industrial societies to high and stable (later declining) population of post-industrial societies - demographic change is result of fertility, mortality, and net migration - declining fertility is most important cause of population aging - replacement fertility is average # of children needed to replace one generation by the next; 2.1 children/woman - proximate causes: fewer long-term relationships and marriages, older age at marriage, more divorces, cohabitation, and use of birth control - cultural causes: changes in value and cost of children in both economic and cultural terms - structural causes: changing role of men and women in their work/social life - in 2007 life expectancy at birth was 81 years - immigration accounted for 45% of Canadian population growth in 90s  contribution by net migration and higher fertility rates than Canadian-born  family-class immigrants contribute to aging of Canadian population  issue: language and culture-appropriate care for elderly - indicators of age structure of population:  proportion of people over 65 to people under 15- old population if former > latter  median age- under 30 = not aging, over 30 = aging - people 20-65 are active cohorts who finance social services for themselves, children, and old - phases of population aging in Canada:  1875-1960- slow aging, relatively fewer births but more survivors under 15  1961-1975- aging at bottom of population pyramid (relatively fewer births and young people)  1976- present- aging at top of population pyramid (lower mortality of adults and old) - baby bust- period of decrease of fertility following baby boom in 1960s- 70s  women went into labor force - baby echo- in late 70s sudden increase of fertility - micro-sociological theories
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