SOCA02 Jan 16, 2014 - lecture 2
Part 1: Gender Inequality (employment)
WEBER'S Gender Inequality - refers to differences between women / women in distribution of
power, income and prestige.
Patriarchy - focuses on male domination and female subordination evident in all social
Historical perspective - gender inequality older than class inequality.
• Hunting = for more dominant (not females, female = net making)
• Hunting artifacts lasts longer than nets (archaeologists rarely found woman made
How do you study gender inequality?
Women = mixed in with men.
• Not segregated like ethnic groups or religious groups (where Catholics and non-
Catholics separated from each other)
• faced legal restrictions: if you wanted to do anything you needed a man's signature.
Job model = women in private sphere (home) whereas men are in the public sphere (working).
Women = economic dependence on men (from fathers to spouse)
• in result, did part time work.
• "pink collar jobs" = occupational segregation = jobs that involved care giving, managing
Massive shift in job earnings of woman and men, more jobs since women wanted / allowed to
Rise of female labour force participation factors: (bold = biggest factor)
1. increase demand for service workers.
2. decrease average # of children per household (more time to work, less time for raising
3. women's movement seeking opportunities (especially w/ education)
4. increased financial pressures on families necessary for middle class standing.
Women status • women = lower status than men, most times receive less recognition.
• "playing dumb" = pretended they don't know.
• the study of: who listens more (women) & who cuts the other off more (men)
• defer more = argue less, told not to argue - cooperate.
• powerless in broader society vs. home (domestic, private sphere) in most cases they
have the most power in the household because men's paycheques were given to their
wives and she spent it on household necessities.
Unequal life chances:
• abortion or medical violence.
• infanticide (wanted only boy child)
• dowry deaths, honour killings, widow burnings
• sex slavery and rape
• 60% makes up almost all university grads, more women w/ BAs than men with BAs.
• But, few women at top = multiple glass ceilings.
1. Sex = biological / physical differences with chromosomes.
2. Gender = social & cultural conceptions of male & female.
Eleanor Maccoby & Carol Jacklin (most systematic research done of the "psychology of sex
Findings supported differences: women more verbal, men more spatial / math, males more
• There are small differences and huge overlaps, not necessary biological differences but
Findings = 1. there are men who are less aggressive than half of all women.
2. women who are more aggressive than half of all men.
Larry Summer (president of Harvard, became Obama's chief financial advisor) • Made an infamous speech of there is a possibility that men are more superior than
• Resulted in a lot of fear of him, despite all his spending on trying to save his
image of being president, he left eventually.
Biological Differences between men and women:
Biological model = testosterone = male aggression.
Sociological model = social experience increases testosterone thus becoming more aggressive
• (once given more dominance then testosterone will go up than before)
• Eg: medical students have low testosterone but when they become doctors then their
testosterone increases because they have more dominance.
2. Child Bearing