SOCA02 - LECTURE6
• do we explain deviance & assume conformity? OR
• explain conformity and assume deviance
ppl can develop "ties" / "bonds" to established orders, deviants or both.
• deviance does not require special motivation (seems inevitable)
• Proper research question: why don't more ppl, engage in deviance?
Deviance / Crime
1. can be fun & potentially rewarding
2. control theory - conformity due to strong social controls
• attachment & involvement in conventional institutions = "stake in conformity"
(1 = strong propensity to deviate, 2= less likely to deviate if attached to institutions.)
Biggest difference in crime rates is between males and females
• apply control theory: more supervision to girls (eg: dating & everything else) therefore
girls are more attached to family (constrains girls from committing crimes unlike boys)
• girls attachment /involvement to things below = less likely to deviate.
Family Jobs Non-deviant peers
Community Sports Schools
Can social control, work from above using police, courts, prisons to discourage those w/
attachments to society from committing crime / deviant?
Example: Very important experiment - Minneapolis domestic violence experiment
• ASKS: would arrest from police stop spousal abuse?
• What they did was make police randomly arrest people who committed spousal abuse.
• When they made an arrest = less subsequent violence
• experiment contributes to mandatory arrest law
• unintended consequence: arrested women as well.
Example: Specific effects - affect of arrest on repeat offending by job status
Experiment shows if you have commitment towards something, could use arrest against them.
• if you have a stake in society, chances of committing crime again lowers.
• unemployed - % assaulting again increased after arrest (have nothing going for them)
• employed - % assaulting again decreased after arrest (doesn't want to lose stake)
Social control - labelling theory (key theory in deviance)
• looks at what happens when you label ppl and their behaviour to this.
• contends that social reactions to deviance are an important cause of deviance.
• amplifies the big negative effects of labels on ppl, does opposite of intended and
makes deviance more likely. [intended: attempts to control deviance] when agents of social control (police, psychiatrists) label behaviour as deviant
• stabilizes / reinforces deviant identities.
Hence why young ppl are given another chance and sent to juvie instead of adult prison, because by
sending them to prison would label them as deviants.
Deter from above
• control deviance by making cost too great, if punishments are perceived as:
• rapid, certain (matter most) and severe (questionable)
• example of severe to extreme = throw them in jail and throw key away
'3 strikes and you're out' law (america) after 3rd = mandatory life sentence.
• the consequence = some ppl have 3 minor arrests yet will get the mandatory life
• a lot of ppl knowing the "3 strikes" law will shoot a cop knowing they are on their 3rd
sentence cause why does it matter anymore?
• Behind bars: adults and juveniles = USA has highest crime rates & ppl in jail in world.
New trend: crime rates decreased since early 2000s
• How do we explain decreased crime rates as a general trend?
• Explanations about decreased crime rates
a) more police
b) community based policing = more community polices instead of big city stns.
c) comp stats = know certain time in evening and place, more crimes.
d) broken window theory impli