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SOCA02H3 (398)


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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

CH16 ReligionPsychologist William James religion is the common human response to the fact that we all stand at the edge of an abyss It helps up cope with terrifying fact that we must die It offers us immortality the promise of better times to come security and most importantly meaning and purpose in a world that might otherwise be cruel and senselessTheoretical Approaches to the Sociology of ReligionDurkheim Functionalism and the problem of orderCollin Jones hockey is the national religion of Canada because it has a lot of viewersDurkheim when people live together they come to share common sentiments and values which form a collective conscience that is larder than any individuals Profane refers to the secular everyday worldSacred religious transcendent world Totems certain objects symbolize the sacredRituals public practices designed to connect people to the sacredMarx Conflict and Religion as a Prop for InequalityMarxwas the first one to stress how religion often tranquilizes the underprivileged into accepting their lot in life Religion diminishes class conflict and he called religion as the opium of people In Russian and other Slavic languages the words for rich bogati and God bog have the same root This suggests that wealth is god given and perhaps even that it makes the wealthy god like The Hindu scriptures say that the highest caste sprang from the lips of the supreme creator the next highest caste from his feetThe Koran holy book of Islam suggests that social inequality is due to the will of AllahCivil Religion Robert Bella is a set of quasi religious beliefs and practices that bind a population together and justify its way of lifeReligion can maintain social order under some circumstances as Durkheim said When it does so however it often reinforces social inequality as Marx argued moreover under other circumstances religion can promote social conflictWeber Social change and symbolic interactionDurkheim highlighted the way religion contributes to social order while Weber stressed the way religion can contribute to social change Webers short book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalismeconomic factors like Karl MarxWeber vigorous capitalistic development in non catholic Europe and north America was a combination of favourable economic conditions and the spread of certain moral values by thprotestant reformers of 16 century and their followersWebers protestant ethic followers of the protestant theologian John Calvin stressed the need to engage in intense worldly activity and to display industry punctuality and frugality in their everyday lifeBenjamin Franklin and John Wesley viewed that people could reduce their religious doubts and ensure a state of grace by working diligently and living simply and many Protestants took up this idea Protestantism was constructed on the foundation of 2 relatively rational religions Judaism and Christianity because their
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