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Sociology (2,416)
SOCA02H3 (398)
Mc Kinon (57)

Kean Alfonso

16 Pages
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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mc Kinon

Chapter 2How Sociologists Do ResearchIScienceExperienceI1OTTFFSSENTexperiencesometimes prevents people from seeing thingshelps determine how we perceive reality including what patterns we seewhether we are able to see patterns at allExperience filters perceptions of reality is the biggest problem for sociological research4 Stages VTPMiOur values help us decide wc problems are worth investigatingmay reflect the typical outlook of our class race gender historical pdiiOur values lead us to formulateadopt theories for interpretingexplaining those problemsiiiSociologists interpretations are influenced by previous research wc we consult to find out what we already know about a subjectivThe methods we use to gather data mould our perceptionsWe can never perceive society in a pureobjective formwe must use techniques of data collection that minimize biasObjectivitysubjectivity each play an important role in science including sociologysubjectivityobjectivity is a reality check leads us to define stwc aspects of reality are worth checking in the 1 placeI1Scientific Vs Nonscientific ThinkingScience seeing is believing Vs Everyday Life believing is seeingreal life so much biasedsociologists develop ways of collecting observingthinking evidence that minimize their chance of drawing biased conclusions10 nonscientific thinkingsee textiTraditionscience is reqd to separate valid fr invalid knowledgeiiAuthoritynewspapersexpertsiiiCasual observationuncertainty can be reduced by observing in a consciousdeliberate mannerby recording observationseg eyewitnessesivOvergeneralizationI know bc several of my parents friends started off poor but are now comfortably middle classmay not know people who work hardremain poorabout the rich people who never work hardScientistsuse sample cases that are representative of entire populationsalso avoid overgeneralization by repeating researchv Selective ObservationIm right bc I cant think of any contrary casesviQualification Exceptions to the ruleaeveryday lifeeasily validatedbsciencestatements that must be examinedeg bc of disabilityviiillogical reasoningignores the fact that rare sequences of events occur just by chanceeg statsflipping a coinviii egodefencei just cant be wronginvested much time energymoney in themix premature closure of inquirythe matter is settled oncefor allmatters are never setteledall theories are only temporarily truexmystificationThere must be supernatural forces at work hereIConducting ResearchI1The Research Cycle6 STEPSiformulate a research questionmust require evidence more than faith must be answered by systematically collectinganalyzing sociological dataiireview the existing research literatureallows them to refine their initial questionsprevents duplication of effortiiiselecting a research methodwhen choosing must keep strengthsweaknesses in mindivcollecting databy observing subjectsinterviewing themreading documents produced byabout themvanalyzing the data
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