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Reference Guide

Sociology - Reference Guides

4 Pages
3196 Views
Fall 2015
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA02H3
Professor
all
Chapter
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l e a r n r e f e r e n c e r e v i e w
w w w . p e r m a c h a r t s . c o m
Sociology
Sociology
© 1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
DEFINITION
Sociology is the study of principles that
underlie social order
• Human behavior is influenced by
membership in various groups
• Research discovers how interactions
among people, not individual
characteristics, influence behavior
THEORIES OF
SOCIAL CHANGE
• Change in societal beliefs and
values; affects the way people act
toward one another
LINEAR THEORY
CULTURE
• Patterns of social life shared by members of a society and taught to succeeding generations
• Based on meanings and ideas, as opposed to material products; always changing
• Consists of knowledge, values, and forms of symbolic expression
• Physical products used by members of
society (clothes, possessions, technology)
MATERIAL CULTURE
• Beliefs, values, and styles of life that are
upheld by most in society (such as American
culture: marriage, honesty, hard work)
DOMINANT CULTURE
• Beliefs, values, and styles of life that are
different from dominant culture and
upheld by a group of people
• Create boundaries (such as jargon) to
protect from other groups
SUBCULTURE
• Subgroup of people with subculture in
conflict with dominant culture (60s hippies
into sexual freedom and pacificism)
COUNTERCULTURE
• Belief that own culture is superior to
other cultures
• Judge other culture by the standards
of ones own culture
Belief that values in own culture are
same as observed culture
ETHNOCENTRISM • Belief that cultures can be different but
equally successful
• Values are dependent on culture
CULTURAL RELATIVISM
• Cultural elements found in all societies
(religion, customs, language)
CULTURAL UNIVERSALS
• Elements of culture widespread to all
social classes of society (books, movies)
POPULAR CULTURE
• Objects used to represent feelings, experiences,
and tastes in culture (music, art, stories)
SYMBOLIC EXPRESSION
• Interrelated elements in a culture
(family, work, income)
• Changes to one element will set off
unexpected changes in other elements
CULTURAL INTEGRATION
• Beliefs that define right from wrong (lying is
wrong, honesty is the best policy)
VALUES
• Values carried by dominant culture
DOMINANT VALUES
• Social change occurs along a
straight line
• Societies evolve from simple forms
to more complex ones
Example: Societies evolve from
primitive to agrarian to urban
societies)
CYCLICAL THEORY
• Societies move between two
opposite cultural views
Example: Acceptance of alcohol to
Prohibition and back again)
DIALECTICAL THEORY
• Combines both linear and cyclical
theories; change is spiral
STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALIST THEORY
• Society tends to gravitate towards
equilibrium
• Everyone contributes to stability
of society because they are taught
to conform to societal rules which
contributes to stability
• Conflict stems from other societies
or deviant behavior
• Conflict is undesirable and must be
controlled
MODERNIZATION
• Changes that occur as society
moves from small-scale rural to
large-scale industrial urban
Example: Mass production of art,
goods and services, technology)
CONFLICT THEORY
Conflict develops from
competition for resources and
leads to change in societal beliefs
and values
Example: Racism turns into
violence during a recession in
capitalist society)
• When one side defeats another,
the winning side dominates
• If neither side wins, then a
balance of forces develops
• Either way, stability is achieved
• Knowledge, technological
advancement, new beliefs,
environmental changes,
population expansion or implosion
can also lead to change
• False stories about the past that are believed
to be true (alligators living in a city’s sewer
system)
URBAN LEGENDS
• Every society develops and teaches ways to behave in given situations; varies among cultures
• Reflect values that underlie society (right and wrong)
NORMS
Folkways • Guidelines for everyday social behavior (language, fashion, manners)
• Not serious if violated
Mores • Societal rules necessary for welfare and survival (laws)
• Serious depending on what is violated
Sanctions • Rewards and punishments used to enforce norms
• Tend to be written rules, laws, regulations, and policies enforced by officials
• Degree of sanction depends on the importance of the norm
Ideological • Control over values and norms by ruling class (arts, laws, science, and
hegemony religion are used to justify racism, sexism, and ethnocentrism)
Rituals • Cultural expression of central values of society shared collectively (weddings)
SOCIOLOGY A-856-71
TM
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Description
Sociology is the study of the principles that underlie social order. In this concise Guide, the reader has ready access to clear explanations and examples of important sociological theories. The often complex and contradictory viewpoints that underlie modern sociology are clearly explained with the aid of inter-connected charts and sub-headings
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