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Reference Guide

Sociology - Reference Guides

4 pages871 viewsFall 2015

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA02H3
Professor
all
Chapter
Permachart

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l e a r n r e f e r e n c e r e v i e w
w w w . p e r m a c h a r t s . c o m
Sociology
Sociology
© 1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
DEFINITION
Sociology is the study of principles that
underlie social order
• Human behavior is influenced by
membership in various groups
• Research discovers how interactions
among people, not individual
characteristics, influence behavior
THEORIES OF
SOCIAL CHANGE
• Change in societal beliefs and
values; affects the way people act
toward one another
LINEAR THEORY
CULTURE
• Patterns of social life shared by members of a society and taught to succeeding generations
• Based on meanings and ideas, as opposed to material products; always changing
• Consists of knowledge, values, and forms of symbolic expression
• Physical products used by members of
society (clothes, possessions, technology)
MATERIAL CULTURE
• Beliefs, values, and styles of life that are
upheld by most in society (such as American
culture: marriage, honesty, hard work)
DOMINANT CULTURE
• Beliefs, values, and styles of life that are
different from dominant culture and
upheld by a group of people
• Create boundaries (such as jargon) to
protect from other groups
SUBCULTURE
• Subgroup of people with subculture in
conflict with dominant culture (60s hippies
into sexual freedom and pacificism)
COUNTERCULTURE
• Belief that own culture is superior to
other cultures
• Judge other culture by the standards
of ones own culture
Belief that values in own culture are
same as observed culture
ETHNOCENTRISM • Belief that cultures can be different but
equally successful
• Values are dependent on culture
CULTURAL RELATIVISM
• Cultural elements found in all societies
(religion, customs, language)
CULTURAL UNIVERSALS
• Elements of culture widespread to all
social classes of society (books, movies)
POPULAR CULTURE
• Objects used to represent feelings, experiences,
and tastes in culture (music, art, stories)
SYMBOLIC EXPRESSION
• Interrelated elements in a culture
(family, work, income)
• Changes to one element will set off
unexpected changes in other elements
CULTURAL INTEGRATION
• Beliefs that define right from wrong (lying is
wrong, honesty is the best policy)
VALUES
• Values carried by dominant culture
DOMINANT VALUES
• Social change occurs along a
straight line
• Societies evolve from simple forms
to more complex ones
Example: Societies evolve from
primitive to agrarian to urban
societies)
CYCLICAL THEORY
• Societies move between two
opposite cultural views
Example: Acceptance of alcohol to
Prohibition and back again)
DIALECTICAL THEORY
• Combines both linear and cyclical
theories; change is spiral
STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALIST THEORY
• Society tends to gravitate towards
equilibrium
• Everyone contributes to stability
of society because they are taught
to conform to societal rules which
contributes to stability
• Conflict stems from other societies
or deviant behavior
• Conflict is undesirable and must be
controlled
MODERNIZATION
• Changes that occur as society
moves from small-scale rural to
large-scale industrial urban
Example: Mass production of art,
goods and services, technology)
CONFLICT THEORY
Conflict develops from
competition for resources and
leads to change in societal beliefs
and values
Example: Racism turns into
violence during a recession in
capitalist society)
• When one side defeats another,
the winning side dominates
• If neither side wins, then a
balance of forces develops
• Either way, stability is achieved
• Knowledge, technological
advancement, new beliefs,
environmental changes,
population expansion or implosion
can also lead to change
• False stories about the past that are believed
to be true (alligators living in a city’s sewer
system)
URBAN LEGENDS
• Every society develops and teaches ways to behave in given situations; varies among cultures
• Reflect values that underlie society (right and wrong)
NORMS
Folkways • Guidelines for everyday social behavior (language, fashion, manners)
• Not serious if violated
Mores • Societal rules necessary for welfare and survival (laws)
• Serious depending on what is violated
Sanctions • Rewards and punishments used to enforce norms
• Tend to be written rules, laws, regulations, and policies enforced by officials
• Degree of sanction depends on the importance of the norm
Ideological • Control over values and norms by ruling class (arts, laws, science, and
hegemony religion are used to justify racism, sexism, and ethnocentrism)
Rituals • Cultural expression of central values of society shared collectively (weddings)
SOCIOLOGY A-856-71
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