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CA (630,000)
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SOCA02H3 (400)
Lecture 6

Lecture 6 Notes (along with Powerpoing Notes)


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA02H3
Professor
Malcolm Mac Kinnon
Lecture
6

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LECTURE 6 Deviance and Crime
Canadians Attitudes Towards Crime
Canadian national surveys reveal crime has been among top three issues since the 1970s
Canadians believe that crime in general, and violent crime in particular, is on the rise
TV viewing habits for Canadians between ages of 18 and 49:
- Are more likely to choose crime or medical dramas than any other type of
program (medical dramas sometime weave criminal matters into their story lines)
Most Canadian adults and teenagers tell survey researchers that the courts are too soft on
criminals, particularly young offenders, and that we should use the death penalty, at least
in some cases (Besserer, 2002; Bibby, 1995, 2001: 45)
Deviance is any behaviour that violates cultural norms and produces some sort of social
reaction; deviance is also violating a norm that gets you thrown in jail (this is referred to
as criminal deviance); deviance is the generic concept; two types of deviance: criminal
and non-criminal
Canada’s Top 10 Primetime TV Programs, September 17October 14, 2007, Adults 1849
Juvenile delinquency they’re treated differently than adults; different set of laws are
applied; juvenile crime is seen as being serious because it can lead to a life of crime
(someone can become a persistent offender) this is why rehab is applied to many cases
If you put juvenile offenders with adult offenders, they get taught on how to be successful
criminals; juvenile offenders can get raped
Labelling theory is when society labels you, people will live up to the label; they will
acquire an identity with social labelling and then live up to the identity that they’ve been
given or they’ve been labelled with (you want to prevent that from happening for juvenile
offenders); most juvenile offenders are male and from lower SES groups
B&E (break and enter)
Laudanum a combination of alcohol and opium (used widely in the American Civil
War)

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Drugs a Victimless Crime?
Both crime and deviance evoke societal reactions that help define the seriousness of the
rule-breaking incident
One of the determinants of the seriousness of a deviant act is its perceived harmfulness.
Perceptions vary historically; for instance, until the early part of the twentieth century,
cocaine was considered a medicine.
It was an ingredient in Coca-Cola and toothache drops and in these forms was commonly
given to children
Consensual crime (when both parties agree; or victimless crime) are crimes like drug
offences (they’re victimless crimes); another example is gambling (people place a bet,
others will take your bet consensual crime); another example is vagrancy; also
prostitution
- Cops use an entrapment technique (a technique specifically reserved to victimless
crime; police under-cover work); some people are opposed to this because police
are not supposed to encourage you to break the law
The argument that marijuana leads to hard drug abuse is a misconception
White Collar Crime and Street Crime
White-collar crime: Refers to illegal acts “committed by person of respectability and
high social status in the course of his/her occupation” (Sutherland, 1949: 9)
Includes embezzlement, false advertising, tax evasion, insider stock trading, fraud, unfair
labour practices, copyright infringement, and conspiracy to fix prices and restrain trade
Committed disproportionately by people from middle and upper classes
Differs from street crime, which includes arson, breaking and entering, robbery, and
assault
Committed disproportionately by people from lower classes
White-collar crime committed by middle- and upper-class people, people who have
education; street crime is committed mostly by lower-class crime
Edmund Sutherland is the sociologist that popularized white collar crime; he argued
that white collar crime is generally related to work, and costs society billions of dollars;
examples of white-collar crimes: copyright infringement (stealing intellectual property);
patent (when you come up with a new discovery; patents run out); price fixing (when
two companies get together and fix the price of a product not allowed to do this)
industrial spine; forgery (means faking documents white-collar crime; usually related
to accounting practices); fraud (selling something and claiming that it represents
something which it is not); embezzlement (stealing money from your company); tax
evasion (not paying your taxes); unsafe workplace; selling unsafe products; pollution
- Berney Maddof had this huge investment fund and cheated people
White collar crime tends not to involve violence, whereas street crime is more likely to
encounter physical violence this is the difference
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Recently, courts have taken white-collar crimes seriously
Accounting fraud Ken Lay (Enron), Jeffrey Skilling (Enron), Bernie Ebbers
(WorldCom)
Bernie Madoff (Ponzi Scheme paid dividends from the money from you industrially;
also called pyramid schemes)
Martha Stuart was charged with insider trading (when you are working for a company
and are aware of what it’s doing, and you have an advantage over outside investors; like
for instance, people who work for Apple, are not allowed to invest in Apple stocks) and
when she went to court, they laid a perjury trap (when a prosecution asks you a question
and you better have the truth or you’ll be charged with perjury) and she went to jail
The courts used a law called honest services to convict Conrad Black (Argus Corp)
Organized crime a stereotype that it is Italian; organized crime is an equal opportunity,
meaning every ethnicity have practiced organized crime; “Donny Brasco”, Sopranos,
“Goodfellas”, (all movies that were made based on the stereotype of Italians and
organized crime)
Bootlegging organized crime example in the 1920’s
Italian Organized crime is the Italian Mafia in the 1920s; Sicilian Cosa Nostra ( another
organized crime)
Myer Lanski was an expert in money laundering and worked for Al Capone (an
Italian); Myer Lanski is also in Godfather II
Russian organized crime very violent
There’s organized crime in Japan, and they drive black American Cadillac; Chinese
Triads are Chinese organized crime; Vietnamese organized crime is mostly with drugs;
Jamaican organized crime; Latin American organized crime is called drug cartels; Pablo
Escobar cocaine trafficker (came from Columbia); the ethnic connection with
organized crime gives it solidarity
The top of the food chain in organized crime Hell’s Angels (they’re called outlawed
bikers; makes the mafia look like a Sunday afternoon picnic in terms of violence); Hell’s
Angels are Caucasian but they have multiple ethnicities within that Caucasian framework
(German, Polish, Irish Scottish, French, etc.); Hell’s Angels originates from just after
WWII because Hell’s Angels was an American’s aircraft outfit that fought against the
Japanese; Hell’s Angels has international reach and reckoned to be the most powerful
organized crime outfit in the world today
Hell’s Angels engaged in turf warfare for the province of Quebec
Some of the chapters associated with Hell’s Angels: Los Bravos, Satan’s Choice,
Chosen Few, Grimm Reaper, Vagabonds, One Percenters
The difference between organized crime (communicate money illegally) and business
activity (legal within the law); there are also big similarities between the two because
they require organization; they are both systematic activities; chain of command orders
originate at the top of the hierarchy like bureaucracies (they have a chain of command);
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