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Lecture Notes (second half of Religion and beginning of Environment)

Course Code
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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Socio is the enemy of liberty
90% of scientists are alive today
Miracle: work of god
oPeople are likely to characterize their experiences based on nature (ex:
oMost people understand scientific mechanisms, they have a natural
interpretation of
oLisbon (in Portugal) 90,000 people died after earthquake and tsunami
Water shed: turning point
dont give help to the people because the tsunami is gods punishment
of sin
Most people did deliver aid to the people in need indicating that the
secular attitude gained
oSecularization is not the death of religion religion loses importance
oReligion becomes something you pay attention to 3 times in your life:
oSome see religion as a mark of ethnicity
Religion is secondary to the ethnic identification
oReligion seen in nationality (secondary to identification in the nation state)
Secure identification
Future of Religion

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oReligion will still exist
oSecular institutions taking over religious areas
oThere will always be religious revivals
oPolarization between people who are religious (social conservatives)
and people who are not religious
Seen in the United States
oConservative and Liberals:
Conservative see the decline of religion as moral decline (not all)
Liberals see decline in religion as freedom of choice
Para-religion: something that is near to religious belief
Ex: scientology
European Classification of Religion
Bureaucratic church: pope at the top, priests at the bottom
School of theology for qualification as a priest
Rules and regulations
Churches are well integrated into society
Teachings are generally main-stream, non-threatening, non-
New religions that break away from churches (protestism)
Less integrated into society and less bureaucratic
No school required
More radical, separation is based on doctrine or
Can be separated based on diet, dress, prayer, etc.
Roman-Catholicism was an Ecclesia: state-supported

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Apostasy: a heretic
oImmigrants in Europe are considered foreigners
North American Classification of Religion
oNorth America was founded based on religious freedom and tolerance
oImmigration-based societies
oSuccessive waves of immigrants in the country
oPeople who live in North America are not bothered about immigration
as opposed to Europeans
oReligions proliferated: spread
o2064 religions in Canada
oMembers of parliament belonging to many different religions
oNorth Americans decided to change church and sect
State-supported churches
Coexisting religions under their overarching authority
Not associated with the state
Theocratic ecclesia were in the ancient world, where king was
godGovernment officials were religious figures (theocracy)
Speculated that exists in Iran
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