SOCA02H3 Lecture Notes - Multinational Corporation, Thomas Edison, Vietnamese Boat People

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20 Apr 2012
Lecture 2 – Globalization
-the environment is a global concern, entertainment has become global
increasingly we’re living in a globalized world
marshall mclaughan – he was a communicationists guru/expert in 1960s/70s… he taught at the university of Toronto and became world
famous… “global village” in his book Understanding Media… he was seeing globalization back in those days… in fact, globalization
actually began in the 16th century due to trade… people began to travel the seas to trade…
“global village” the world we live in today is increasingly becoming like the old… in the old, when something happened, other people in
the village will know it instantly… in the traditional village, people will say the mental horizon (how far they can see, and their way of
thinking is parachoial (mental horizon is restricted to this small place and it doesn’t extend beyond the village where you are born and
where you live)…
The world we have lost – in the midevil village in Europe, a trip of a lifetime (the longest trip people in a lifetime) was 6 miles… today
we can go further than that in 5 mins… wherever people were born, that’s where they died
The globe is becoming like the traditional village - mclaughan
-causes and consequences of globalization
causes of globalization: (1) development of global communications… this can happen in two ways: a.) global communication by the
movement of people, b.) global communication by the movement of information… economic activity anywhere is felt everywhere… this
is called the commodity chain (in book and in selected terms)…banks use derivatives
-derivatives – these things derive from something else… people sell debt because people buy debt, and these are called derivatives in the
stock market… you can make a lot of money off them but they are high risks… derivatives based on mortgages were sold on the stock
market… and because of this the housing bubble crashed, and the consequences based on this was felt around the world… these are
critical aspects of material culture. Globalization of political institutions: UN is globalization… nobody elects people in the UN, so a lot
of people are opposed to a global government like the UN (because it is not demographic) … people have also argued that global trade
has done something similar… is the world symbolic culture (language, ideas, values) developing… is this becoming global and obliterate
… homogenization (will we have a global culture that eradicates regional and national differences)
-global communications: (2 aspects of this)… (1) transportation technology… material culture has to develop before globalization can
develop… at one time we all lived isolated relative to others, physical movement (other than walking) is very limited… humans evolved
first in Africa and migrated across the globe and did this by foot… colonization of the globe took 10s of thousands of years... WHAT
-long before trades, you can contact China through silk road…
boats to travel rivers, streams, lakes… when Europeans came to NA, they discovered that the best way to get around NA is canoes….
Then ships (ocean-going material) developed.. the Portugease led the world here as did the Spanish, Chinese, Dutch,
the name of the Chinese boat to do trading is called the Chinese Junk…the Chinese contacted the west coast of the Americas in regions
of Mexico and they influenced architectural developments of the Inca, the Myas…
-it takes 60 days to travel the Atlantic from Europe… at this stage of techonolical evolution, the movement of information is tied directly
tied to the movement of people… today we can send information at the speed of light… in those days, information traveled with the
people.. there were minor exceptions to these… people back then used drum signaling and smokes … this lasted until the 1830s… in the
1850s, sail gave way to steam and we have faster and more reliable vessels... sail means you have to wait it out till there is a wind to take
you somewhere… by the time of the Titanic (1912), it takes 5 days to cross the Atlantic to cross from South Hampton to New york…
loss of 1500 lives in Titanic sink
after this era became the floating palaces (1930s-1940s)… WHAT IS FLOATING PALACES??
next is Air transportation- this produces a qualitative leap forward… Charles Linberg crossed the Atlantic in a monoplane (a plane with a
single wing unlike the airplane)… he did it in about 18 hours… A.W.tricks is a female pilot… Amilia Airhar… she flew airplanes all
over the world… she made a flight from the US to Europe in 1932 in 13.5 hours… she flew all over the world… and shes dead now, she
went missing with her plane and nobody found her or her plane
at the same time, the Germans built the Zeplins (powered balloons… in 1930s)…. These balloons (first passenger aircrafts) which took
14 hours to fly the atlantic were the largest at the time to carry passengers
Led Zeplins (lead is something that can’t flow in air… it is an oxy moron, two contradictive terms because the balloon floats but lead
doesnt)… problem with zeplin technology is that it uses hydrogen, which is highly flammable.. there is movie 1937 – Hindenburg… the
balloon crashed in NJ by lightening… and that was the end of Zeplin technology… they thought about substituting with helium, but this
didn’t happen
-by early 1940s, passenger airplanes (first one is called the Yankee Clivver… it’s a sea plane (can land on water)…and it took ___ hours
to cross the atlantic)… so now ships are on the way out and airplanes came are the new things… we only use ships now for bulk
transport and tourism and cruises.
Communications technology –
Inca as well as the Greeks use runners to carry messages in the old days
-Pony Express (there would be a rider, and a horse, change your horse and ride it to another station to continually carry messages) is a
way of moving information
qualitatively leap forward (something happens to communication technology) and it is called the telegraph and now information is sent
by wire … how is information sent???.. morous code… now the information of movement becomes independent of the movement of
then came the radiowaves (after wires)… and radiowaves are wireless… but the very first wireless radiowaves was moros codes…
-still inter-continental communication is restricted by a lack of transmission power… you cant transmit information that far… so cables
that are carried by ships and sunk in the atlantic to help transmit these information
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-Nicola Tesla – key figure in the development of radiowaves… he is a Serbian and he emigrated to America in 1884 and he worked with
Thomas Edison… but Tesla had the greater mind.. he pioneered and developed technology for long distance, electrical transmission… he
invented the technology for that and Marconi got credit for it by ways of patenting … it was Tesla who invented the FN signal….
Marconi was sending radio signals across the Atlantic in 1912… he sent it from NFL to Kronwall.. from here you can see information is
becoming global… a series of transmission towers are built that make the long transmission possible (curvature of Earth creates a
problem for radio transmission because it just gets sent out to space, so transmission towers are important)… now TV and radios can be
transmitted coast to coast
-rocket technology was first developed by the Germans in the WW2, but they lost, so the Americans and Russians captured the scientists
responsible for technology of rockets and took them to US and Russia to develop more which led to the Saturn Project… one of these
scientists: Vernon Vaugn Bron… his dream was always outer space… in the US he developed rockets in space, and this helped develop
satellites… used satellites to beam down radiowaves and TV globally
-we have internet today, fiber optics… and all of this makes possible globalization… and all of this makes possible the global economy:
transnational corporations
-transnational corporations…corporations that span the entire world
offshore/outsourcing – depend on increasingly on foreign labour and foreign production (his slides)
have gained autonomy from national governments… karl marx.. he predicted that frewer and frewer business would control larger and
larger shares of the market and this has certainly taken place… we call this cooperate concentration (businesses become larger and
larger).. what happens is successful businesses take over unsuccessful businesses and become larger…and we get corporate
TWO PEOPLE wrote: The Morton Corportaion , 1932 – they document corportate concentration way back then…
-most successful automobile country are the Japanese… we have seen a transnational … we can call this the Mega corporation (Roller
ball…. These giant trans-national corporations will take over the world… prlly not because political power is still greater)… Walmart is
the 12th largest corporation in the world…has more revenue than the GMP of Israel, Polland, Greece
-Walmart imports most of its goods from China… most people in the States wanted to put off these trades so that they develop
domestically…when companies tried to protect their own countries like this, it caused the Great Depression in the 1930s to last even
longer called the Kitty effect….global trade is good to economic growth…. Obama just introduced a trade-barrier against Japanese
Tires… lets see what that does in future times
-top 200 corporations have greater revenue than the GMP of 182 countries… these corporations have tremendous economic power
lecture 3 – globalization (continuation from lecture 2)
-transnational corporation – mega (so big)… have more financial and economic power than many countries
-multinational (a corporation located in many different countries) that it is global
-these were not just NA corporations anymore, ex. GM, IBM, Honda, Nissan are all corporations that are not from NA
-smaller the car, the greater the danger for the drivers, so that’s why many people continue to buy big cars even though they are not
environmental friendly… you wont just go buy a small car to save environment when your healthy
-Northern Telecom (its fallen on hard times lately)
production techniques – way you produce or manufacture things have been globallized… its made the same everywhere… why? Greater
efficiency… nations have now have to compete with each other so you have to create a capital friendly environment (have this when you
want to attract investments)… this is why queens park has recently increased taxes but only for us; they did not increase taxes for
business because if you did, they will not come to Ontario and set up jobs here, so we got stuck paying these taxes (harmonization tax)
-how else do places compete – sometimes environmental laws are placed… but they shouldn’t be done so to drive out corporations
high wages are uncompetitive… a worldwide (global) division of labour has been created… in advanced countries like Canada, Europe
and USA, labour is increasingly skilled (ex. go to University for good jobs)… in developing countries semi-skilled work (manufacturing
or factor work)…. So increasingly manufacturing jobs are being exported (ex. Ontario has shutdown so many factories), so firms move
to Mexico and set up factories there because it is more cheaper to operate in those countries… they have also moved into China… this is
what we call global division of labour
-global trade…Japan has the second largest (after America) economy… Japan is a wealthy country now…Germany has third largest
economy… UK came 25th best place to live according to UN…(how the mighty has fallen… beginning in the 20th century, UK was the
wealthiest and powerful country; but not anymore)… the two world wars and also the loss of the empire took a big toll on the UK to
have caused this
IMF – international m – provides capital to various coutries in the world… so if a country is going into dept, the IMF would lend money
to these countries
NAFTA – north American free trade agreement – Canada, America, mexico (and now latin-American countries are joining in)
G8- big economies, try to facilitate trade and make it more easier to do and another one is called G20
In the past, markets were nonexistent and trades were local (bitter trade with the outsider)… trade encourages people with different
backgrounds to interact with each other… this became big in the 16th century… nations state (ex. Canada is a nations state, US is a
nations state) came onto the scene in the 16th century and it encouraged trade because markets could now become national and after that,
markets became increasingly global and this was due to technological shipping… you cant even have national trading without railway
(trains)… trucks, large ships (ocean-going vessels)…so organizations become formed globally and WTO (world trade organization) is
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