SOCA02H3 Lecture Notes - Erin Mills, Nobility, Spinning Jenny

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20 Apr 2012

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-great transformation – transformation to the modern era from the feudal era
-the greater the supply and lower the demand, then the lower the price for it… vice versa:
greater the demand and lower supply, price will increase
-division of labour explodes with the modern era
-society used to be dominated by landed elites… called elites because they were landed
hereditary ruling class (they owned land) and they got their power from the land and this
was hereditary… you passed on your wealth and possessions to your children.. these
people had special political/legal rights that separated them from the rest of the
population… some worked in government, a lot worked as layers… they dominated the
house of commons and house of lords and the kings council… so they were politically and
also in the church…the dumbest son’s went into the church (church of England)… as
feudalism declined, these people lost out…they experienced downward mobility (historial
end of the world) as capitalism came about… what about the peasants that worked for these
elites??... mass of people in premodern areas were peasants….they were bound (felity …
loyalty, you owed to the lord)
-fodder – weren’t skilled in the use of arms and they would simply be killed… they paid
the lords peasant dues and this was an in-kind payment… you pay the lord in crops or
labour…peasants were seen as inferior beings…they called aristocrats blue-bloods… they
were called blue-bloods because they stayed out of the son and so had blue-veins.. if you
had dark skin, then you were a peasant… aristocrats saw themselves as superior beings…
peasants destiny was tied to the land, so when these aristrocrats disappeared, they were
gone to… so when the lords left, our ancestors (since mass of us were peasants) did was go
to the city and they became an urban working class…so they were still at the bottom.. as
the world changed from agricultural to indusitrial, there was downward mobility for
aristrocats and lateral movement for peasants
-we have craftmans and artisans (good at making furniture, jewelry..highly skilled hands-
on work… created beautiful piece of art)… these people also went through downward
mobility because of mass production…. And you can’t mass produce things when you
make it by your hands… mass production makes things more widely available and destroy
craft technology…
-blacksmiths (also craftsmans) becomes the name smith… so people with last names smith,
they were blacksmiths back then
coopers … they made barrels
mason – made stone
carpenter – wood worker
shoemaker – cobblers
-all these people disappeared because you don’t’ make these things by single person again,
these are all mass produced… they experienced downward mobility to… craftsmans were
always people of control, so they didn’t like it one bit when they were shoved into
factories, so it was craftsman that established the first trade unions…
in order to be a craftsman, you had to be an apprentice and train under a craftsman (a
master craftsman…journey man… he can travel anywhere and his talent will be
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recognized) for 7 years… so our current day trainining and recruiting comes from this
process of craftsman
-merchants and manufacturers …people in business are the ones who dictate the future and
they experienced upward mobility… they were literate and knew how to read in order to do
business and make contracts and make deals.. they also had to be good with numbers..
because it was merchants who invented bookkeeping… “in the black” and “in the red”…
your profits are written in black, and your debt is written in red
mercantile system – dominated by merchants and by trade… in England, merchants
imported goods from china, India, japan… these manufatures
putting out system… this begins when a merchant takes wool (unfinished wool) to a
peasant household and turn it to a finished wool… just turn the unfinished wool .. this was
the first form of manufacturing … and they did this in the country side
-mass manufacturing technology… you can produce hundreds of thousands of
commodities that are standardized (they look alike).. so wealth is improving for
everybody… so they invested in technological innovations
James hargrieves, Spinning Jenny around 1770 turned textiling into a mass production
way… this transformed textile operations… this was an early part of the industrial age and
it was dominated by the English
-james watt – steam engline driven by coal … lead to the railroad… importance of railroad:
can’t have a modern society without a transportation way for moving bulk goods… as soon
as railway came about, economic burst came out… that’s why we have the Canadian
pacific railway..,. was built in 1885 (double check this)
small workshops (putting out system) to large production (manufactories)
manufactories – they became as mills (mill is an early factory…. It was called a mill
because it was located near water, and the water turns the wheel and wheel makes flour)…
where did this come from??? Don Mills or Erin Mills… these were early small factories
the person who looks after the wheel is known as the wheelwright… and this is a skilled
profession now
-lead to the industrial revolution… the largest revolution in mankind… but nothing can’t
happen without social disruption… the peasants had the worse of this because they were
forced out of land jobs to the poor working condition in the city
-workers back then resisted technological innovations… and many unions today had
agreements with companies that the company will not introduce labour …without first
consulting the union.. because techonolocial change throws people out of work
neduld – him and his buddies burnt down a textile factory… factory had brought in new
technology which threw workers out of employment … techonology allows you to save on
labour and still increase productivity
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-machines keep replacing individuals but we keep on inventing new products, so there will
always be job growth and this will continue… machines will never replace human worers
-bloodites (any1 that opposes techonological innovations) – named after Neduld… he
became the symbol to technological innovations… Ned was hung for his troubles
-capitalism transformed women’s work… in feudal times, men and women worked out of
the household, they engaged in parallel work activity, men and women did similar kinds of
work… if a craftsman managed a business out of the home, the women would help him
manage him… so women were important at this stage of history.. this was the case also in
the early stages of the industrial revolution, but as the industrial revolution got going,
increasingly employers told women that their services were no longer required, so they
ended up in the home and did not contribute to household income… so as industrial age got
going, they experienced downward mobility
-during the world war 1 and 2, women went back to work because there is a shortage since
men were out in world war… products made during the war have a short shelf life
during first world war, they helped with munitions in first world war… right after first
world war in 1919, women get to vote… “money is power”… during second world war
ended, women were responsible for the war effort… women used to fly bombers from
new-foundland to Europe… shortly after second world war, the feminist movement
emerged… all of this is involved with work and production and making money…
nowadays women make up almost 50% of the workforce
-today women had legal and political power.. work is transformed by the industrial
revolution…. A new form of labour is created semi-skilled factory worker.. this work is
highly alienated (alienated labour).. and there is wage of labour: (a) you get paid for the
amount of time you work… and (2) you work if there is a demand for your
labour(dislocation associated with the industrial age)
-factories had replaced agriculture… the people that work in agriculture today is 3%, and
that 3% can make enough food to feed the rest of Canada…farming will never disappear…
its just using technology (tractors for easier plough) so that you require fewer and fewer
farmers to feed more and more people….agri-business… massive farms that produce large
amounts products… we BECOME URBANIZED and we leave the agricultural to city
-hundreds of thousands of irish and Scottish left due to famine e.g. irish potato famine…
went to Canada
-cant have industrial revolution without a transportation system!
-trent canal opened up interior of Ontario, mostly timber was shipped out via the trent canal
to lake Ontario and then shipped all over the world
-rideau canal system moved bulked goods in Ottawa
-canada’s industrial era = labour force and transportation infrastructure are the
-as American population shifted westward, quebec and Ontario were better placed to trade
with America and so the maritimes were deindustrialized, lost their factories to Ontario and
quebec… took them decades to catch up
--U.s capital built many of the factories in Canada in order to avoid the Canadian tariff
-this began a period of widespread worker exploitation
1820-1880-industrialization shoots up by 300%
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