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lecture 3+4 - work and economy.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Andrew Mc Kinnon

Delete Part C Delete slide 8 and 9 from the Work lecture -great transformation transformation to the modern era from the feudal era -the greater the supply and lower the demand, then the lower the price for it vice versa: greater the demand and lower supply, price will increase -division of labour explodes with the modern era -society used to be dominated by landed elites called elites because they were landed hereditary ruling class (they owned land) and they got their power from the land and this was hereditary you passed on your wealth and possessions to your children.. these people had special political/legal rights that separated them from the rest of the population some worked in government, a lot worked as layers they dominated the house of commons and house of lords and the kings council so they were politically and also in the churchthe dumbest sons went into the church (church of England) as feudalism declined, these people lost outthey experienced downward mobility (historial end of the world) as capitalism came about what about the peasants that worked for these elites??... mass of people in premodern areas were peasants.they were bound (felity loyalty, you owed to the lord) -fodder werent skilled in the use of arms and they would simply be killed they paid the lords peasant dues and this was an in-kind payment you pay the lord in crops or labourpeasants were seen as inferior beingsthey called aristocrats blue-bloods they were called blue-bloods because they stayed out of the son and so had blue-veins.. if you had dark skin, then you were a peasant aristocrats saw themselves as superior beings peasants destiny was tied to the land, so when these aristrocrats disappeared, they were gone to so when the lords left, our ancestors (since mass of us were peasants) did was go to the city and they became an urban working classso they were still at the bottom.. as the world changed from agricultural to indusitrial, there was downward mobility for aristrocats and lateral movement for peasants -we have craftmans and artisans (good at making furniture, jewelry..highly skilled hands- on work created beautiful piece of art) these people also went through downward mobility because of mass production. And you cant mass produce things when you make it by your hands mass production makes things more widely available and destroy craft technology -blacksmiths (also craftsmans) becomes the name smith so people with last names smith, they were blacksmiths back then coopers they made barrels mason made stone carpenter wood worker shoemaker cobblers -all these people disappeared because you dont make these things by single person again, these are all mass produced they experienced downward mobility to craftsmans were always people of control, so they didnt like it one bit when they were shoved into factories, so it was craftsman that established the first trade unions in order to be a craftsman, you had to be an apprentice and train under a craftsman (a master craftsmanjourney man he can travel anywhere and his talent will be recognized) for 7 years so our current day trainining and recruiting comes from this process of craftsman -merchants and manufacturers people in business are the ones who dictate the future and they experienced upward mobility they were literate and knew how to read in order to do business and make contracts and make deals.. they also had to be good with numbers.. because it was merchants who invented bookkeeping in the black and in the red your profits are written in black, and your debt is written in red mercantile system dominated by merchants and by trade in England, merchants imported goods from china, India, japan these manufatures putting out system this begins when a merchant takes wool (unfinished wool) to a peasant household and turn it to a finished wool just turn the unfinished wool .. this was the first form of manufacturing and they did this in the country side -mass manufacturing technology you can produce hundreds of thousands of commodities that are standardized (they look alike).. so wealth is improving for everybody so they invested in technological innovations James hargrieves, Spinning Jenny around 1770 turned textiling into a mass production way this transformed textile operations this was an early part of the industrial age and it was dominated by the English -james watt steam engline driven by coal lead to the railroad importance of railroad: cant have a modern society without a transportation way for moving bulk goods as soon as railway came about, economic burst came out thats why we have the Canadian pacific railway..,. was built in 1885 (double check this) small workshops (putting out system) to large production (manufactories) manufactories they became as mills (mill is an early factory. It was called a mill because it was located near water, and the water turns the wheel and wheel makes flour) where did this come from??? Don Mills or Erin Mills these were early small factories the person who looks after the wheel is known as the wheelwright and this is a skilled profession now -lead to the industrial revolution the largest revolution in mankind but nothing cant happen without social disruption the peasants had the worse of this because they were forced out of land jobs to the poor working condition in the city -workers back then resisted technological innovations and many unions today had agreements with companies that the company will not introduce labour without first consulting the union.. because techonolocial change throws people out of work neduld him and his buddies burnt down a textile factory factory had brought in new technology which threw workers out of employment techonology allows you to save on labour and still increase productivity-machines keep replacing individuals but we keep on inventing new products, so there will always be job growth and this will continue machines will never replace human worers -bloodites (any1 that opposes techonological innovations) named after Neduld he became the symbol to technological innovations Ned was hung for his troubles -capitalism transformed womens work in feudal times, men and women worked out of the household, they engaged in parallel work activity, men and women did similar kinds of work if a craftsman managed a business out of the home, the women would help him manage him so women were important at this stage of history.. this was the case also in the early stages of the industrial revolution, but as the industrial revolution got going, increasingly employers told women that their services were no longer required, so they ended up in the home and did not contribute to household income so as industrial age got going, they experienced downward mobility -during the world war 1 and 2, women went back to work because there is a shortage since men were out in world war products made during the war have a short shelf life during first world war, they helped with munitions in first world war right after first world war in 1919, women get to vote money is power during second world war ended, women were responsible for the war effort women used to fly bombers from new-foundland to Europe shortly after second world war, the feminist movement emerged all of this is involved with work and production and making money nowadays women make up almost 50% of the workforce -today women had legal and political pow
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