SOCA02H3 Lecture Notes - Victimless Crime, White-Collar Crime, Rape Of Males

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24 Apr 2012

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Lecture 08
Crime & Deviance
Let’s distinguish b/w crime & deviance
General term is deviance ( a generic term) is any behaviour that violates cultural norms &
produces some type of social reaction
Some norms if you break them no criminal sanctions are applied e.g. friendship norms like
keep your friends scerets (=betraying trust) if you violate it , the consequences is losing friend
but no jail senteces
Deviance is sometimes could violate a norm that could get you throw in jail refer to that as
criminal deviance which is any deviance violates a law
2 types of deviance criminal and non-criminal deviance
Today lecture is about criminal deviance
Canadian attitude towards crime crime is big issue in the minds of Canadians
Most Canadians feel violence crime is on the rise
TV programs that feature crimes is usually the one that is most popular & movies usually do
okay as well
o They are so formulated same variable goes into mix & repeated ppl still like them
Slide 6 Top Canada’s show on Primetime Crime shows ( e.g. CSI, CSI Miami, Prison break) at
top next is medical (e.g. Grey’s Anatomy)
Several different types of crime (Classification of Crime)
Juvenile Delinquency
juveniles are treated differently from adults in criminal code ( criminal
Different sets of laws apply to juvenile not as harsh , generally, as law applies to adults
Age w/ which you can be charged as an adult varies generally w/ the crime (there is no set age)
how serious offences is and so on E.g. case in US where 12 yrs old was charged as an adult
not too many cases like this in Canada
Juvenile crime is seen as very serious because it can lead life of crime someone can become
persistent offender that’s why every opportunity is made to rehab juvenile offenders
Last thing you want to do is throw them in prision & as adult offender 2 things wrong w/ that:
o when they get throw in prison w/violent offenders there is lot of male rape
o another thing is if you put juvenile offenders w/ adult offenders they get taught
how to be successful criminals
so juvenile offeces every attempt to rehabilitate because “labelling” Labelling theory is
sociological concept that when society labels you very often will live up to that label = people
will acquire and identity you from social labeling & then people live up to label given
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o want to prevent that labelling from happening because younger people are more
impressionable labelling is all the more powerful says labelling theorist so REHAB
is the big word as opposed to punishment
most juvenile offenders are male & usually from lower SES group because the kind of crimes
committed are what we call “common crimes” e.g. stealing cars, drug offenses, assault of
various kinds, B and E (Break and Entering), occasionally homicide
Next Victimless Crimes
sometimes they are called “consensual crimes”
consensual means both parties agree e.g. of these crimes is “drugs” are victimless crime
but there is Qs mark after it because disagreements here whether or not drugs offences are
victimless Many criminologist argue that they are victimless crimes
In 19th century (1800s) marijuana was legal , morphine & alcohol
The use of Lautnam (alcohol and opium) it was widely used in 19th century & civil war
during amputation to kill the pain
Chloroform was 1st early anaesthetic which didn’t come along until end-late of 19th century
Opium was widely used in 19th century and cocaine as well was widely used Freud wrote
several papers on medicinal properties of cocaine
morphine was widely used not quite strong as heroine & morphine is best painkiller ever
20th century was the centuries where all of these drugs were made illegal prior to that in
western Europe people used them & no one cared about it some ppl used them (came addict)
& some just tried and let go
those people that become hard users of drugs start on marijuana it is true but its fudgy
people do start w/ marijuana then to heroine but not many but around 3.5 million people has
smoked marijuana how many went of them went to hard users 0.000001% so
argument that marjiuna lead to hard drugs is misrepresentation (for tiny minority of people it
does lead in that direction) Not strong argument
As of matter most people at age around uni experiment w/ marijuana & give it up and move on
w/out using it again
Bill Clinton pop but didn’t inhale marijuana ( BS) inhaling part is the illegal part
consensual/ victimless crime is when both parties agree and there is no victim in the traditional
senses drugs are example - when some wants to buy & some want to sell both parties
agree to the transaction
o to which many people say it’s a different set up from following where someone has
money & someone steals it in which case there is victim & perpetrator but if
people agree to transaction & then there is no victim in the traditional sense
Came say same thing for gambling where people will take your money & you will give your
money (you will place your bet & people will take your bet) but some kinds of gambling are
still illegal
homeless people are called vagrancy where is the victim in cases of vagrancy & can spend a
night in jail for vagrancy
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vagrancy people who wander around places to places lives by begging usually get picked &
spend the night in jail
Finally Prostitution is also victimless crime someone wants to less their body & someone
wants to buy that body but no victim in the traditional crime
o This why when it comes to victimless crimes police forces have to resort to
Entrapment is technique specifically reserve for victimless crime because no will report it since
no one is really victim there ( both party don’t want say anthing) this lead to police
undercover work
So in the case of prostitution a young female officer will often pose as prostitute & have a
conversation w/ the “John” ( =is a customer who is recorded) other police officers are
listening in & when the “deal” is finished (agreed upon) the police moves in
so female police officer will entice the “John” into buying the “tricks” John is then arrested
many people are oppose to entrapment because police are not supposed to encourage people
to break the law which in way entrapment kind does w/ female police officer walking
around and trying to entice person to approach her & fall for tricks
while some cases like these have fallen off the courts but for last few years there is shift
towards the favour of the police so they can do this
White-Collar Crime
this kind of crime is important type of crime these are illegal acts committed by “respectable”
people (by high social status people) it’s committed by middle class people & upper class
street crime in contrast is committed by lower class
white collar crime is educated crime need education to commit them need know-how/
need special information, need access to certain kinds of resources which very often the
workplace provide you w/ e.g. computers that kinds of things
Edward Sutherlad is a sociologist that popularized white-collar crime before Sutehrland while
people knew about this type of crime but it was not investigated systematically & People
assume at that time that criminal activity was mostly done by under-class
Sutherlads say that is not so white collar crime is generally related to work and they cost
society billions
Burny Madeoff huge investment fund fraud he ran this & cheated people out of 50 million
dollars (he offered 50% interest people lost their shirts etc.) He made off using his skill as
investment counsellor to milk people out their monies
white collar crime cost society 40X as much as street crime huge difference street crime is
small when it comes to money
BUT the difference b/w street crime and white collar crime white collar time tends to NOT
involve physical violence (not encounter violence) vs. street crime which most does encounter
physical violence e.g. break and entering there is possibility of violence here
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