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University of Toronto Scarborough
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

Chapter 14: Politics [pgs 430-437] The Future of Democracy Two Cheers for Russian Democracy  Seminars held in Moscow to acquaint some leading sociologists in the Soviet Union with Western sociology  Russia will never be a capitalism and democracy o b/c freedom means the powerful are free to compete unfairly against the powerless, creating social inequality o nearly 40% of pop live below poverty line  out of 38 countries, 97% viewed democracy as ideal form of gov’t  Russian citizens equated democracy with distress, not freedom  In Russia, voting levels are low, minority grps treated cruelly, different thn western democracies The Three Waves of Democracy P 431 graph—Draw! 1 WAVE: began when more than half the white adult males in U.S. became eligible to vote  33 countries enjoyed at least minimally democratic institutions  A democratic reversal occurred b/w 1922 and 1942  During that period, fascist, communist, and militaristic movements caused 2/3rds of the world’s democracies to fall under authoritarian or totalitarian rule nd 2 WAVE: b/w 1943 and 1962  T he Allied Victory in WWII returned democracy to many of the defeated powers, including West Germany and Japan  Military dictatorship replaced many democracies  1/3 of democracies were authoritarian regimes by 1970s. 3 WAVE: began in 1974 w/ the overthrow of military dictatorship in Portugal & Greece  Soviet Communism collapsed  By 1995, 117 of 191 countries were democratic o = 61% of world’s countries, containing 55% of world pop o 3 wave less dramatic  Formal democracies: countries that hold regular, competitive elections  Liberal democracies: formal democracies AND the freedoms and constitutional protections that make political competition meaningful  Formal but non-liberal demo—substantial political power may reside with a military that is unaffected by the party in office
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