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Crime and Deviance 1 of 2

6 pages121 viewsWinter 2011

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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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Social Forces
Theories of crime started out from biology.
Sociopathy- the predominant trait of sociopathy is that people are unable to
empathize with each other.
oThe inability to empathize is also related to the inability to feel guilt.
Sezarea Lembrozzo was the first criminologist .
oCriminal Justice System.
Crime, Its Causes and Remedies, 1911 Lombrozzo was convinced that criminal behavior is
inborn (biological)
oLombrozzo describes the criminal as an ATAVISTIC (atavism) type
Comes from evolutionary theory
What most distinguishes us from the animal world is that we (most
humans) have a moral sense (sense of what is right and wrong) and we
build a morale castle, religion and law is based on that. Political
ideaology is based on that.
Some humans are not fully evolved when it comes to morality. They are lacking when
it comes to morality.
Criminals are like the way humans used to be before we fully evolved, to become full
Atavistic they belong in another point of time (said Lombrozzo)
oThey are pre-human in a morale sense.
Meaning, before humans fully evolved.
Lombrozzo called criminals degenerous. Degenerousy implies a biological/morale
oHe also used terms like morale insanity. Some things are moraly insane.
oLombrozzo thought he had proof of his theory.
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oThe point he makes is that criminals have identifiable traits.
Evolutionary Theory
Point he makes is that criminals have identifiable traits (Eg. Shifty eyes, red hair,
men with receding hair lines). These were known as stigmatas. Is this claim true?
No, the eveidence is lacking for this to be true.
Random sample of criminals, are people who have been convicted of crime. The best
sample to collect is at Prison. Collect the sample at prison and collect it at non
prisons. Try to make the sample as close as possible to rule out all factors then
compare the two samples on the Stigmata. Lombrozzo didnt do that but Charles
Goring. Charles Goring tested Lombrozzo in his book, the English convict of 1913.
He collected a smaple of criminals and compared it to the sample of non criminals
and he found no difference.
oThis idea is that criminals
oWilliam Sheldon criminality is related to body type.
oEndomorph - stout, round, non-athletic.
oEctomorph tall, slim, delicate. (non-athletic)
oMesomorph Muscular, agile, athletic.
oCriminals tend to be mesomorphs.
oGluecks is a husband and wife combo, they published a book called physique and
delequency. They replicated Sheldons study and work. They compared the sample of
500 delicrants (?) with a sample of 500 non deliquants (?). Gluecks found a ??? of
mesomorphs in their delicants. There were more mesomorphs in their delinquent
oHeavy musculature in some way relates to criminal behavior.
oSocial forces interact with body type.
oCasting director is trying to pick a cast for an action movie. Your looking for an
action hero. You wouldnt pick Woody Allen. You would pick The Rock or Arnold
Schwarzenegger. Stone Cold Steve Austin.
oMuscular guy is more selected to be a leader of a gang than a Woody Allen type.
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