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SOCA02H3 (398)

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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

SOCA02- LEC1  New kids on the block.  What’s science: the sociology of the social world is obtained from research: Scientific method.  The scientific approach cannot answer all questions… science cannot handle ultimate questions:  Is it possible to lead a meaningful life??  SCIENCE HAS NO ANSWER.  Is there an unmoved mover?  a first cause  What happens to us when we die?  Why is there something instead of nothing?  Do we have a soul and is that soul immortal?  Science deals with factual questions: imperical questions  EVIDENCE  obtained from used scientific method. Science & experience:  what appears to be the first cause  13.7 million years ago  big bang  Traces of the big bang  Steven Hawkings: prior to the big bang nothing existed.  “ something comes from nothing”  Religion: a first cause was God.  What came before the big bang?  you have to imply RELIGION  Empirical inquiry  Experience shapes are perceptions  how we see reality … EXPERIENCE (culture)  Your values help what problems you investigate: like.. inequality  The techniques will also filter the way you see the world.  ^lack of objectivity, presence of bias  2 types of sociological studies:  Descriptive: divide into 2 parts - Static (specific point & time)(e.g photoraph) Static examples: infant mortality at4.92/ thousand births (Canada’s infant mortality rate in 2011) (murders in Toronto in 2009: 62) (population in Scarborough in 2010: 593) *WEALTH is the reason for infant mortality rate.. middle class people & wealthier people have lower infant mortality rates.* - Trend analysis (what takes place over a period of time) Trend examples: (1952-2002 -> divorce rate increasing)  Explanatory : try to explain why things happen  Explain variables -> example: how can we explain the university attendance?? (parent’s income)  People who live in cities are more likely to commit suicide than people in small towns..  When the economy improves, crime rates reduce. It is a consistent cause of crime.  The death penalty was demolished in Canada b/c death penalty does not prevent murder.  Clifford Olsen > killed 12 children Social accounting:  Social policy: jobs that work with the gov’t  Rational policy: evidence based policy  Social accounting: can often be found in the census form  An aging society- people 65 and over has become a larger proportion WHY? - People live longer - Live expectancy is increasing - WW2 - Baby boom -> demographers - Boomers: 1945-1955 birth rate started to decline  produced a population bulge. - Pensions are growing  in Europe 2 changes: - No longer mandatory retirement age at 65 - You can ONLY collect gov’t pensions at the age of 67 The building blocks of sociological research: - Sociologists use tools; Micro levels  Concept: used to identify similar processes and things. (album called Wall: songs like: momma’s gonna put all her fears into you, mama’s gonna make your life come true) concept: mother, none.. PINK FLOYD: Alienation: powerlessness, meaninglessness, self- estrangement (a concept that stands for something has sub concept).. social class: occupation + education + , roles, norms. - variable is a concept ALL SCIENCES HAVE THEIR OWN CONCEPTS  Variable & concepts are interchangeable  Hypothesis: explanatory of 2 variables or
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