are lacking when it comes to morality. They don’t have a highly developed moral
Criminals lack highly developed moral sense
Criminal throwback in evolutionary development – uncivilized people
Atavistic meaning they belong in another point in time
oCriminals are prehuman – before humans fully evolved
Criminals lack the biological material required for highly evolved
Called criminals are “degenerate”. Degeneracy implies biological and moral defect
and uses terms like moral insanity
Lombroso thought criminals have identifiable traits
oRed hair people, men who have hairlines, and shift eyes are criminals – called
all of these traits stigmata
Armchair reflection – your mind comes with conclusions with science, you must test
this hypothesis! What you have to do is collect random sample of criminals and a
random sample of non-criminals. Then you compare the two samples on these
stigmata, Lombroso didn’t do this, but Charles Gory did. He tested Lombroso’s
hypothesis in 1919 in his book “The English Convict.” He compared criminal and
noncriminal sample on the stigmata that were mentioned by Lombroso and found no
evidence for it to be true. Lombroso’s idea was proven wrong.
This idea that criminality is in the genes was still around in 1940.
oWilliam Sheldon was convinced that criminality was related to body types.
Classified body types: endomorphs (round, stout, non-athletic, short), ectomorphs
(tall, slim, non-athletic, delicate, muscular frame), mesomorphs (muscular, agile,
Sheldon found that criminals tend to have a muscular body type. Criminals tend to
be mesomorph than other body types.
Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck published a book called “Physic and Delinquency” –
compared 500 delinquents with a carefully matched sample of non-delinquents,
confirmed Sheldon. Gluecks’ found that in their delinquent sample, there were many
mesomorphs than with the non-delinquent sample, confirming Sheldon’s theory