oNormal accidents are accidents that occur inevitably though unpredictably because
of the very complexity of modern technologies
oTechnology is the practical application of scientific \principles.
Technological determinism is the belief that technology is the main factor shaping human
oA risk society is a society in which technology distributes danger among
all categories of the population. Some categories, however, are more exposed to technological
danger than others are. Moreover, in a risk society, danger does not result from
technological accidents alone. In addition, increased risk is due to mounting environmental
threats. Environmental threats are more widespread, chronic, and ambiguous than
Neil Postman (1992) refers to the United States as a
otechnopoly. He argues that the United States is the first country in which technology has
taken control of culture. Technology, he says, compels people to try to solve all problems
using technical rather than moral criteria, although technology is often the source of
oNikolai Kondratiev was the first social scientist to notice that
technologies are invented in clusters
•Kondratiev subscribed to a form
of technological determinism, the belief that technology is the major force shaping
human society and history.
•Economic lures, increasingly provided by the military and big corporations, have generated
moral and political qualms among some researchers. Some scientists and engineers
wonder whether work on particular
topics achieves optimum benefits for humanity
•4 industrial environmental destructions are global warming, industrial pollution, decline in
biodiversity and genetic pollution
•Burning these fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The accumulation
of carbon dioxide allows more solar radiation to enter the atmosphere and
less heat to escape. This is the so-called greenhouse effect. Most scientists believe that
the greenhouse effect contributes to global warming, a gradual increase in the world’s average surface
•Industrial pollution is the emission of various impurities into the air, water, and soil through
•Acid rain is a form of precipitation whose acidity eats away at, and eventually
forests and the ecosystems of lakes.
•The ozone layer is 8 kilometers to 40 kilometers above the earth’s surface. It is
depleted by CFCs. The depletion of the ozone layer allows more ultraviolet light to
enter the earth’s atmosphere, which increases the rate of skin cancer.\
•Pollutants may affect us directl
•Biodiversity refers to the enormous variety of plant and animal species inhabiting
•Genetic pollution refers to the potential dangers of mixing the genes of one species
with those of another.
Positices of genetic reconstructions
•They can then detect and eliminate hereditary propensities to a wide range of diseases.
•Allow farmers to grow disease- and frost-resistant crops with higher yields.