Agnosticism lead it, there was an improvement in the quality of life. Before, life was tough (vale
of tears) which was an important reason for people to be religious. As epidemics such as black
plague deaths broke out—40% of the European population died because of this—Catholic
Church said that it was god’s punishment for human sins. But the truth was that flagellants
who were travelling through out Europe had spread it.
oBlood letting—ancient Greek—performed for over 2000 yrs until the end of the 19th century. It is
the withdrawal of often considerable quantities of blood from a patient to cure or prevent illness
and disease. (drawing blood)
oFamineyields were too low
oOtherworldly Weber—what we see is that religions become more secular.
It is not necessary for some one to be religious to be charitable. Charity, sheltering the homeless,
3rd world aid, environmental issues, passivism (rejection of war)—everything is being done
without religious intention. Thus religion has lost its functions through which it monopolized its
bereavement. Bereavement counseling—belonged exclusively to religion
Today instead of bereavement counseling there are grief counsellors (this industry has grown
tremendously), psychotherapists (taken over people who are depressed or have other emotional
problems). Exorcism—the use of prayers or religious rituals to drive out evil spirits believed to
possess a person or place—this has declined as well.
oReligion has been influenced by the secular culture
The United Church—ordained women, approved gays.
Environmental movement—influences religion
oSecularization thesis Weber—disenchanted religion—he felt that religious institutions would
become more and more unpopular.
oQuiet revolution—Quebec—secular movement
oPeople have been trying to have a religious revival
oScience revolution cause (improvement in standards) and effect (focus more on this world,
advances in science and technology strengthen secularization) of secularization
oTsunamisecularization—prevailing opinion: natural forces have made it happen. Modern
explanation: earthquake in the sea.