# SOCB05H3 Lecture Notes - Empirical Relationship, Nomothetic, Confounding

## Document Summary

Units of analysis and the ecological fallacy types of survey designs formulating a research question and hypotheses. Sampling in qualitative and quantitative reseach in quantitative research (surveys), probability sampling is favoured. This is because most statistical analysis assumes that the sample elements have an equal probability of selection in qualitative research (field observation, qualitative interviewing, oral histories) probability sampling methods are possible, but rarely used. The more the numbers are, the more holistic the graphic will be. Identify the causal factors that most effectively predict most or all of the cases is best: noma; law, try to arrive to a general rule that would apply to the greatest number of cases possible, probabilistic. Deal with probability of something happening: causal factors presence does not necessarily guarantee the outcome of the interest. Effect that we are interested in may not always be present. Raises the chances that the outcome would be observed: there are always exceptions to rules.