Epistemology: what is knowledge, what is the truth, how is it acquired, how is it justified to what extent could things be known the premodern approach. So deeply engrained that they were not said to be assumptions. Greek mythology; seasons changing the modern approach. Differs from premodern in that differences in knowledge are known as legitimate. Subjective points of view which has no inherent qualities of their own they are equally legitimate/ valid the postmodern approach. Nothing exists outside the perception of the observer. All that exists is our perception of reality. No single count of social reality is authoritative. All points of view are valid representations of reality. Objectivity; observation that is free from bias: we don"t merely see, but we see things in the way we were socialized interpreted by our minds. Culture, beliefs, expectations, etc: bias free observation is impossible, most sociologists believe it is possible through intersubjective testability.