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Lecture 5

SOCB26H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Intelligence Quotient

Course Code
Julian Tanner

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Socb26 lecture 5
Living in knowledge society means you get pressured to get more and more knowledge.
Demand has exceeded supply, which allows universities to select who they want, allows for a
hierarchy to be present within the universities
In UK in 50 or 60s oxford and Cambridge was number one and number two, in states, Harvard and
Yale were at the top etc. In Canada we have a hierarchy but less pronounced in many ways in
terms of hierarchy and selection
50 or 60 years ago, prestigious programs were arts or humanities, now has been replaced with
law medicine and management
o this is where we go to a couple weeks ago
comparisons we are most interested in are between us(Canada) and the Americans
o in US, there is a ‘pecking order’ hierarchies
o within U of T there is an internal pecking order -> st George being at the top
Canada has very few private universities, if we do have them they are not really heard of
o Resources handed out in Ontario are handed out equally
U of T might get more money from govt cuz have more students, but doen’t get more
money than Brock simply because U of T does more research and has more
‘Egalitarian ethas’ is present in Candian system
In America it is unambigiously elited
o Secondly Canada is diff from US because there is no real market for undergraduate
credentials for BA or BSc
In Canada most universities admit and recruit their students locally, we get jobs
In US, particularly the elite schools recruit their students internationally, these
students then get their jobs all over their states or even all over the world
In US there is a national market
Table 12.1 2005 Maclean’s rankings
o This is a categorization that maclean’s has come up with
Study done in the 1960s of teachers and their students in California? elementary school, called
Pygmalion in the Classroom
Professor and relationship with a student, he made it his ambition to make this flower seller(the
student) into a dutchess, he wanted to transform this working class young woman into a highclass
young lady
One of the ways he did this was by changing her speech, but more generally having great
expectations for her, he groomed her into a highclass lady
o By having her assume the mannerism and the achievements of a high-born lady
o This play was called Pygmalion, it was turned into a musical called “my fair lady”
o Key idea of this research is that the expectations that teachers have to their students
influences the performance of their students
If teachers respond and treat students of whom they expect great scholastic
achievements as being different from other students who they expect less of, then,
the argument is that those are the outcomes that will be produced
What we are talking about here is a self-fulfilling prophecy
The researchers had a very clever strategy, they created different expectations for
student progress by telling teachers a few little white lies about the students in their
All kids in the school from grades 1-6 were given an IQ test, for most of the kids in
the schools the test results were accurately conveyed to the teachers, however the
purpose of the experiment, a random group of 20% of the kids in each grade was
singled out, and misidentified to the teachers as being exceptionally gifted
The hypothesis that Jacobson and Rosenthal was that the teachers would use the
false information they had been given and would conduct their classroom practices
in such a way as to make the prophecies come true
What they found: at the end of the school year the kids were tested again, and they
found that the kids that were falsely identified as gifted kids had much higher IQ
than those that were not identified as gifted kids, the gains in IQ scores were more
than double than for the control group
The gap in IQ scores between experimental and control group were
especially high in the younger grades
how were they conveying the high expectations to these falsely identified
o They were the recipients of numerous positive comments, warm and
appreciative touching (pat on shoulder, pat on head)
This is an important study, has been hugely influential but also very controversial
o In this day and age, the researchers would not be allowed to tell lies about the IQ scores to
the teachers
o Some studies have found that teacher expectation had resulted in differential studies in
o But no other studies have found the same significant difference found in the Pygmalion
One reason has to do with the fact that, if other researchers had tried to replicate the
experiment, the teachers might have already known that they were going to be
deceived by the researchers (b/c they would have already heard about the original
study since it was so famous)
Second possibility is that in the subsequent studies they didn’t wait long enough to
do follow up tests to look at the IQ scores 2 or 3 months later
Thirdly, in the original study most of the dramatic increase in IQ scores occurred
amongst the youngest kid (gr 1 and 2), not much effect on the older children
Maybe because around gr 3 they have begun to see themselves as good
students or bad students or average students, so teacher impact has no effect
on any IQ scores
Not very likely to reverse that sense of self simply by having a teacher telling
them they are an academic high-flyer in training
Even if teachers have great expectations of students, students may not be
intellectually capable of fulfilling those expectations
Teacher expectations cannot compensate for deficiencies (limits to positive
o Any of these differences in teachers expectations can be traced to social class
o Another study with teacher and desk position
Students who were placed at the front of the classroom wore more clean clothes,
had neatly tied hair, had more respect for the teacher, and the students were lighter
This suggests that shade of the skin affect the teacher acception to students
Those at the back were least clean, most scruffy, darker skin
They also tended to be kids who came from single-parent families or had parents
who were on welfare
Within the first week or so of the school year, the teacher is making judgments of
academic performance on the basis of characteristics that are strongly related to
socioeconomic status of families
Once assigned to these groups, the kids were treated very differently, kids at front
treated nicely, the ones at the back treated more criticism, kids at the front received
more instruction, also kids at back were deemed by teacher were judged to be slow
Once kids had been assigned to a particular group, they stayed there, there was very
little mobility, group placement had caste like characteristics
o There was little chance of a kid that was initially assigned at the back
of the class to be promoted to the front of the class
As the academic year progresses, the differences in academic performance in
the three groups gets increasingly larger
Strong relationship between assignments in kindergarten and the assignments in
grade 1
Again in gr 2 there was no mobility