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Lecture 6

lecture 6-12

15 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCB26H3
Professor
Julian Tanner

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1
Lecture 6
1.Differentiation and structure in the higher sections of education
2.Some universities have become increasingly difficult to get in, more selective- higher grades
3.This stratification process, hierarchy in nature of higher education is more evident in some
countries or others
4.England- oxford
5.US- ivy league, Princeton
6.Canada- there hasn't been thatttt much differentiation, the higher education is the
distinction btw going to uni rather than going to college
7.The basis of hierarchy, the community colleges are more vocational in nature, knowledge in
uni is pure knowledge
8.Not a coincidence, well known in Canada, working class kids are more likely than students in
higher backgrounds are higher in attendance in college
9.Selection function not only plays out in terms of institutions but differences in universities
themselves differ in programs of study
10.In a historical class, arts and humanities would be the field with most prestige and most
resources directly
oThis has changed rapidly in the last 10-15 years
oThe rise in the power and influence in the professional influence- business and
science
11.Major reason in selective function from highschool to uni is because more young ppl in
western world, want and expect to get into higher education
12.Majority of age group where 50-70% of students are in university or college
13.You and your parents bought into the idea btw the close linkage of the high education and
the jobs
14.We now reach the stage where at least some university fields are filled with applicants,
there's more younger ppl wanting education than there are places for them
15.This is more acute in some programs more than others
16.Management very competitive to get into
17.The results of the great expectations, what has happened as a consequence of having great
expectations is that the entry is higher to get into
18.Where they're allowed to, many of the professional faculties have been jacking up their fees, u
of t law school is about 15, 000 a year for tuition
19.You would be welcomed by the banks to borrow money for schooling
20.Law school of u of t, they offset the money, a chunk of that 15,000 will go to a scholarship
fund
21.Many working class families are dissuaded to not go to law school because they don't have the
money to do it
22.Some of the universities had increased their reputation but their ability to have high
rejection rates
23.No private universities in Canada that's anyone ever heard of
24.No ivy league
25.In the american system, resources are dulled out unequally
26.Canada, U of t, is the best and biggest uni
oDoesn't have more resources, just more size not reputation
27.In comparison to united states, we don't have a hierarchy, should have more like states
28.Big difference btw us and states universities
www.notesolution.com
2
oIn Canada, undergraduate students tend to be recruited locally, after graduation,
tend to work locally
oVery few students are from outside of the province or international students
oMost employers, don't attach that significance to what university you go to
oThe american system is opposite, many undergrads go out of state and are recruited
internationally
oThis is particularly the elite universities
oSimilarly, most employers would prefer, drool out of the mouth would like to hire the
elite schools
29.Pygmalion in the classroom: study of elementary students and their teachers
oTeacher's expectations about the students IQ, improving their test scores over the
course of the academic year
oWe can change people by expecting things of them, Rosenthal and Jacobson
oAbout 20% were selected and deliberately misidentified as students who had huge
academic potential, unrivaled in terms of academic performance
oWhat the researchers believed that the teachers of these kids would act on the false
information given and see if kids grades improved
oAt the end of the academic year, those same kids who were tested at the begininnging
of the year were tested again, those kids who were false info, had higher grades than those
who weren't falsely info's
oThe iq were doubled of those in the experiment than those in control
oThe expectations of a superior is performed by the enthusiasm the teachers had, kids
responded to the comments and facial expressions teachers made towards the
experimental group
30.When you're doing academic research, one of the things that add to the validity of an
experiment is if ppl are able to replicate the same findings
oSome studies have found that teacher expectations did result in different treatment
oBut not the same drastic increase
oThis study got alot of attention, one suggestion, in the months and years since the
original study, when other experiments went into different elementary schools and told
being in the study, teachers were alerted that they were going to be deceived by the
researchers- researchers had more difficulty persuading the teachers
They didn't wait long enough to take a retest- thus the grades weren't as
drastic
Most of the dramatic increase in iq scores occured amongst the youngest kids
in grade 1-2
They didn't find the same increase amongst the older kids, this failure to find
significant increase amongst kids in higher grades have been repeatedly found in
other studies- reason because it may be that by the time kids have gotten in to grade
3-4 their academic self concept have been developed
Beginning in grade 3 kids already start seeing themselves as smart or stupid,
academic identity already forged, so teachers expectations can't shift that evaluation
Even if teachers do have great expectations of their students, students
themselves might not be intellectually capable in fulfilling those expectations
There are cognitive barriers that impede teachers expectations
31.Social class and teacher expectations- Ray Rist
oSES characteristics of kids determine their placements in ability groups in
kindergarten class
www.notesolution.com
3
oKids in diff. Groups treated diff by the teacher
oObserved interactions of the teachers and students
oTeacher already assigned kids to different ability groups in the classroom
oThe academic group was grouped right infront of the teacher
oThe kids with lowest ability group were put at the back of the classroom
oThe average were in the middle
oWhat was the basis of the differentiation of students? The kids who were in the front
tended to wear clean clothes, hair always groomed, already most respectful of the teachers,
lightest skin in the colour
oKids at the back were least well kept, most scruffy, not neat, hair not attended, skills
weren't good, darker skins
oRist then found out that the kids at the back of the class room were also the ones that
came from single parent families or welfare
oThe very early on from the academic year, teachers were already picking various
clues of the social backgrounds of the students, these were kids in kindergarten ages 5-6
oVariety of cues, kids were allocated in these 3 different groups and inferences made
on their background
oOnce assigned, they were treated very differently, kids at the front were frequently
praised by the teacher, the ones at the back were criticised, front more instructions, ones at
the back had more control and slow learners
oInferences used as basis of differential treatment
oOnce kids were assigned to the 3 groups, very little mobility btw those groups, once
in those groups, tend to stay there the whole year
oAt the end of the year in elementary school, the performance gap, attainment gap
btw the kids in the 3 groups widen
oWhatever differences in September, the gap widened interms of performance- at the
end of kindergarten year kids when to grade 1
oAgain they were put in different ability groups arrange in hierarchy, the best
predictor of which of the groups in grade one were the same as in kindergarten
oA year further on, at the start of grade 2, again the kids in top ability group were the
ones at the front in kindergarten
oKids put in early assignment in ability groups are the same over the years, there's
Lecture 7
Educational attainment is still predicted very strongly by the parents
The linkage btw the status background and the children still exists over time
oAlso applies in different nations
Highest probability of graduating from uni is 100%
The more education a parent has increases a females probability of her education
Same progression, increasing probability of males, no gender variation
Students in high status background, even when iq scores that are identical to modest
backgrounds
oStudy: amongst students categorized as high in ability and high income background, 90%
went to university
oWhen you hold ability constant the probability of getting college education is affected by
the money that your parents have
oStudy: amongst white males with identical iqs, those who came from highest SES, they
receive 1.9 more years of education than those in the lower class
Education costs money, even in highschool, lower status ppl can't afford it and can't continue
school
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Description
1 Lecture 6 1. Differentiation and structure in the higher sections of education 2. Some universities have become increasingly difficult to get in, more selective- higher grades 3. This stratification process, hierarchy in nature of higher education is more evident in some countries or others 4. England- oxford 5. US- ivy league, Princeton 6. Canada- there hasnt been thatttt much differentiation, the higher education is the distinction btw going to uni rather than going to college 7. The basis of hierarchy, the community colleges are more vocational in nature, knowledge in uni is pure knowledge 8. Not a coincidence, well known in Canada, working class kids are more likely than students in higher backgrounds are higher in attendance in college 9. Selection function not only plays out in terms of institutions but differences in universities themselves differ in programs of study 10. In a historical class, arts and humanities would be the field with most prestige and most resources directly o This has changed rapidly in the last 10-15 years o The rise in the power and influence in the professional influence- business and science 11. Major reason in selective function from highschool to uni is because more young ppl in western world, want and expect to get into higher education 12. Majority of age group where 50-70% of students are in university or college 13. You and your parents bought into the idea btw the close linkage of the high education and the jobs 14. We now reach the stage where at least some university fields are filled with applicants, theres more younger ppl wanting education than there are places for them 15. This is more acute in some programs more than others 16. Management very competitive to get into 17. The results of the great expectations, what has happened as a consequence of having great expectations is that the entry is higher to get into 18. Where theyre allowed to, many of the professional faculties have been jacking up their fees, u of t law school is about 15, 000 a year for tuition 19. You would be welcomed by the banks to borrow money for schooling 20. Law school of u of t, they offset the money, a chunk of that 15,000 will go to a scholarship fund 21. Many working class families are dissuaded to not go to law school because they dont have the money to do it 22. Some of the universities had increased their reputation but their ability to have high rejection rates 23. No private universities in Canada thats anyone ever heard of 24. No ivy league 25. In the american system, resources are dulled out unequally 26. Canada, U of t, is the best and biggest uni o Doesnt have more resources, just more size not reputation 27. In comparison to united states, we dont have a hierarchy, should have more like states 28. Big difference btw us and states universities www.notesolution.com2 o In Canada, undergraduate students tend to be recruited locally, after graduation, tend to work locally o Very few students are from outside of the province or international students o Most employers, dont attach that significance to what university you go to o The american system is opposite, many undergrads go out of state and are recruited internationally o This is particularly the elite universities o Similarly, most employers would prefer, drool out of the mouth would like to hire the elite schools 29. Pygmalion in the classroom: study of elementary students and their teachers o Teachers expectations about the students IQ, improving their test scores over the course of the academic year o We can change people by expecting things of them, Rosenthal and Jacobson o About 20% were selected and deliberately misidentified as students who had huge academic potential, unrivaled in terms of academic performance o What the researchers believed that the teachers of these kids would act on the false information given and see if kids grades improved o At the end of the academic year, those same kids who were tested at the begininnging of the year were tested again, those kids who were false info, had higher grades than those who werent falsely infos o The iq were doubled of those in the experiment than those in control o The expectations of a superior is performed by the enthusiasm the teachers had, kids responded to the comments and facial expressions teachers made towards the experimental group 30. When youre doing academic research, one of the things that add to the validity of an experiment is if ppl are able to replicate the same findings o Some studies have found that teacher expectations did result in different treatment o But not the same drastic increase o This study got alot of attention, one suggestion, in the months and years since the original study, when other experiments went into different elementary schools and told being in the study, teachers were alerted that they were going to be deceived by the researchers- researchers had more difficulty persuading the teachers They didnt wait long enough to take a retest- thus the grades werent as drastic Most of the dramatic increase in iq scores occured amongst the youngest kids in grade 1-2 They didnt find the same increase amongst the older kids, this failure to find significant increase amongst kids in higher grades have been repeatedly found in other studies- reason because it may be that by the time kids have gotten in to grade 3-4 their academic self concept have been developed Beginning in grade 3 kids already start seeing themselves as smart or stupid, academic identity already forged, so teachers expectations cant shift that evaluation Even if teachers do have great expectations of their students, students themselves might not be intellectually capable in fulfilling those expectations There are cognitive barriers that impede teachers expectations 31. Social class and teacher expectations- Ray Rist o SES characteristics of kids determine their placements in ability groups in kindergarten class www.notesolution.com
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