Lecture 5

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Published on 29 Sep 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Sociology
Course
SOCB42H3
Professor
Lecture 5
Smith:
-Religion
-Mercantilism
Comte:
-Bio
-Socio in hierarchy of sciences
-Nature of sociology:
Order
Progress
Work + economy = market
When can a govt contribute to making the pop’n productive
Religion:
-Very important to citizens, energizes them, religion had more effect over law
Established (politically accepted) Non-established (freedom of religion)
Origin Political conflicts Impartiality – do what you want in your places
of worship
Energy Low – no more need to recruit people High- constantly recruiting
Interests Maintaining authority – people must
believe this religion and only
No longer to be the absolute authority but to
convert people and maintain morality
Dangers Multiple authorities – gov’t vs religious
problem for governments
Low - tolerance is developed of other religions,
competition breeds mutual understanding
Gov’t
role
Gov’t because dependent on priests so they
have to manage incentives
“do to priest like the barons”
*Maintain justice, education, cultural policies
*Urbanization is a source of religious, social behaviour commercialism promotes moving into cities. In
the coutry, everyone knows you + family are but in cities, you do not know anyone. People will be more
inclined to form little cults that are superstitious, disciplined, segmented from society, apocalyptic (pg
1004) danger according to Smith
Pg 1005 cities have a lack of public life. Cities were dirty. Only the rich got to see plays, shows and
enjoy themselves. Religious movements were a big thing. Cultures provide these things and make the city
more enjoyable and prevent these negative cults from forming.
Integrity, purity of faith is not an established religion but works out to be better
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Mercantilism:
What blocks break through into commercial society?
Feudal societies are made up social structures. Mercantilism is a set of ideas to develop economic
development. Smith thinks if people actually believe in mercantilism actually blocks development.
1) Mercantilism wealth = money
problem according to Smith: money becomes a fetish (you fall in love with the symbol of money
rather than what it really is). Money is not actually wealth, but a symbol of it. Wealthier people
have control over the most goods + services than others. They can also trade them to people who
want them.
2) Exports are good, imports are bad: trading things, more money in bank. Bad because:
1) fool’s quest – if we have $ and we want to spend it in another country, we will find a way to do
it.
2) Hinders free trade – sacrificing interests of consumers for the interests of producers. Ex. Cars
were not allowed to be imported. This left people with crappy cars that were more expensive.
Consumers paid more for an inferior product. It was good for the company’s workers, but not
consumers. When importing was allowed, people spent their money on imports. It allowed NA
consumers/producers to divert money to areas where they could improve (pg 573 free trade idea
… maxim of every family ….)
Free trade leads to econ development: law of comparative advantage
1) Consumers get better, cheaper products
2) Domestic resources are better allocated
Comte
Biography: coined the term social physics aka sociology
1798-18?7 he lived through French Revolution which happened during one of the most prestigious
regimes.
After revolution, felt that things got out of control. Revolutionaries kept killing after the King died.
Napoleon came after and led a series of wars – tyranny, dictatorship. Everything was based on
aristocracy, Catholicism.
Comte – where can we find a sense of order?
Charles Fourier – produced ‘science of human character’ to understand personality types (937 types) He
wanted everyone to have a job/partner they would love.
Saint Simon – in order to fill society’s void left by aristocracy, we needed a religion of science. Leaders
would be captains of industry and scientists.
Comte was a partner with Simon. Simon stole Comte ideas.
Graph on blackboard math is more general, simple than sociology, which is more complex, specific
One is high than the other, but can the higher one be reduced to the lower?
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Document Summary

When can a govt contribute to making the pop"n productive. Very important to citizens, energizes them, religion had more effect over law. *urbanization is a source of religious, social behaviour commercialism promotes moving into cities. In the coutry, everyone knows you + family are but in cities, you do not know anyone. People will be more inclined to form little cults that are superstitious, disciplined, segmented from society, apocalyptic (pg: danger according to smith. Pg 1005 cities have a lack of public life. Only the rich got to see plays, shows and enjoy themselves. Cultures provide these things and make the city more enjoyable and prevent these negative cults from forming. Integrity, purity of faith is not an established religion but works out to be better. Low no more need to recruit people. Interests maintaining authority people must believe this religion and only. Gov"t because dependent on priests so they have to manage incentives.