Lecture 6 (1).docx

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11 Apr 2012
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Lecture 6
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Function of DOL
Mechanical Solidarity
Organic Solidarity
Causes of DOL
Pathologies of DOL
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What is function?
Durkheim does not use it in a general way; a specific way that the processes serve for maintaining
integrity of the organism
Ex. Digestive system absorbing nutrients from outside environment
What does the DOL do for society as a whole?
- It is not civilization
Intellectual and material development of society
Happened in Adam Smith; specializing
DOL has a lot of civilization in it, does lead to all of these things
Societies that have more of civilization have the most suicide rates and the most crimes
As societies become more advanced, there is more crime
Even higher in the urban area than the rural areas
Smith told us the DOL makes people dumb; doesn’t sound so great
Isn’t distributed throughout society; only a few people care about specializing
If something of the DOL is going to appeal to society in a moral way; it cannot be restricted to a few
people and it cannot make society worst
It brings material abundance and moral degradation; need to find a deeper moral understanding
- The answer is solidarity
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The DOL is to maintain social cohesion
a) Mechanical
“Birds of a feather flock together
Based in similarity and likeness
Sharing builds connection to one another
Some common value holds us together
b) Organic
Rooted in the principle; opposites attract
Qualities you have I wish I had and vice versa
You develop a bond that complements each other
Feature
Mechanical Solidarity
Organic Solidarity
Morphological (structural) basis
Based on resemblances
(predominant in less advanced
societies)
Segmental type (first clan-based,
later territorial)
Little interdependence (social bonds
relatively weak)
Relatively low volume of population
Relatively low material and moral
density
Based on division of labour
(predominately in more advanced
societies)
Organized type (fusion of markets
and growth of cities)
Much interdependency (social
bonds relatively strong)
Relatively high volume of
population
Relatively high material and moral
density
Types of norms (typified by law)
Rules with repressive sanctions
Prevalence of penal law
Rules with restitutive sanctions
Prevalence of cooperative law (civil,
commercial, procedural,
administrative and constitutional
law)
Formal features of conscience
collective
High volume
High intensity
High determinateness
Collective authority absolute
Low volume
Low intensity
Low determinateness
More room for individual initiative
and reflection
Content of conscience collective
Highly religious
Transcendental (superior to human
interests and beyond discussion)
Attaching supreme value to society
and interests of society as a whole
Concrete and specific
Increasingly secular
Human-orientated (concerned with
human interests and open to
discussion)
Attaching supreme value to
individual dignity, equality of
opportunity, work ethic and social
justice
Abstract and general
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True purpose of DOL is to create and main organic solidarity
DOL creates across a lot population of mutual interdependence and solidarity
Economic productivity that happens sometimes as a by-product of DOL is not the root of society
The DOL links people lives together across space
We are able to do something faster than without DOL, but it creates bonds amongst us which we
wouldn’t have; new connection created by DOL
Organic unity; each one is doing separate things that connect to each other for the good of society
He is driven by a deeply moral question? What is the best type of person is the best? (Overall or
specialist)
Durkheim wants to provide an objective answer
What is society telling us to do? Which solidarity, from what society is telling us, is more important?
Hard to observe solidarity objectively
Durkheim’s big breakthrough, you can measure it objectively if you look to the law
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Penal Law and Mechanical Solidarity
The law is the visible symbol of social solidarity
If you want to know which solidarity is dominant, look at the legal codes, that will tell you what is most
important
Law is a social fact, its objective
What type of law corresponds to which solidary more and look and see which type of law is higher in a
ratio in a given society
Two types of law:
- Penal law (criminal law)/Repressive
Defining feature is defined by sanction that it sets up
What happens to you when you break the law
If you break them, you get punished
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