SOCB44H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Complex Number

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Published on 8 Oct 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Sociology
Course
SOCB44H3
Professor
-urbanization = shift in proportion of population (cities vs. rural)
-describes a process by which rural areas are transformed into urban areas that involves increase
in 1) population and 2) population density
-city population density is high
-exception: some areas of world have relatively high population density but are still rural
-urbanism = social patterns and behaviours associated with living in cities
-city brings crime, lack of friendliness, hard/cold people, is large and personal
-characteristics depend on where you live/reside
-American Harlem = traditionally a low-income area, long standing cultural tradition, associated
with high crime rate, drug culture, centre of ethno-cultural piece in America, strong history of
churches, gone downhill economically; upper-middle class from Manhattan, NY are starting to
move into Harlem due to wonderful buildings/housing
History
-there was once no city around
-humans lived on planet for about 100,000 years, but cities existed for about 5.000 years only
-hard to pinpoint the earliest city, perhaps in 8,000 BCE
-Jericho – best population around 600 people
-cities took so long because lack of agricultural (food) surplus; not able to produce enough food
so that everyone does not have to spend their day in food production
-before cities could emerge, must have breakthrough of dramatic improvements of agriculture,
called agricultural revolution
-people began being nomadic, then hunters and gatherers
-ability to maintain own livestock (sheep, pigs, cattle)
-development of tools that allow you to dig, weed, and turn wheat into bread
-extra food (surplus) allowed people to engage in commerce/trading, pottery, and trade extra
food for objects (bowls, plates)
-spices were important, and were traded to Europe and something was traded back
-Fustel de Coulanges – The Ancient City
-believed that religion helped with growth of cities
-priest would lead the temple and keep track of things brought into temple
-people would pray at temples before they went back to rural areas
-people settled around temple due to food surplus and became full-time residents
-Catal Huyuk (Shatal Hooyook) – 8000 BCE 6000 population
-average age was 30 which was quite well back then, average age now is 70s
-notion of complex division of labour by gender (men and women were doing same job)
-farmer had to be a mechanic when machine broke down; be a veterinarian when animals are ill
-jobs are highly specialized nowadays
-notion of trade (baskets)
-5600 BCE, Catal Huyuk was abandoned, everyone left for some reason (perhaps disease)
-most cities until 19 century were relatively small (less than 5000) except Rome
-Rome was imperial city (200,000-750,000 population); people have different rights according to
social divisions/hierarchies (emperors, elites, slaves)
-increasing social hierarchy (social stratification/classes)
-city becomes more complex in terms of prestige, status…
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Document Summary

Urbanization = shift in proportion of population (cities vs. rural) Describes a process by which rural areas are transformed into urban areas that involves increase in 1) population and 2) population density. Exception: some areas of world have relatively high population density but are still rural. Urbanism = social patterns and behaviours associated with living in cities. City brings crime, lack of friendliness, hard/cold people, is large and personal. Humans lived on planet for about 100,000 years, but cities existed for about 5. 000 years only. Hard to pinpoint the earliest city, perhaps in 8,000 bce. Cities took so long because lack of agricultural (food) surplus; not able to produce enough food so that everyone does not have to spend their day in food production. Before cities could emerge, must have breakthrough of dramatic improvements of agriculture, called agricultural revolution. People began being nomadic, then hunters and gatherers. Ability to maintain own livestock (sheep, pigs, cattle)