SOCB44H3 Lecture Notes - Labeling Theory, Cesare Lombroso, Differential Association

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8 May 2012
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crimes and deviance ( C and D) 3/15/2012 4:11:00 PM
Crimes against ego
Aka: personal crime
Crimes against person, aka
Physical attack
assaults
Two types of assaults
No real good cause:
o Have the right to defend yourselves , ubt government are
weak
o Highlited by theory that
Ppl try to defend themselves, but got arrested
Convenience store owner : David Chancharged by
deterring /detaining/locking up a shoplifter
In common law: equality
Applies when the law turns out to be foolish
When you are victim of geneal assault, you can defend
youselve
But don’t dfend too strong, cause may get
charged
If you live in Texas, then how fiercely, no problem
In fact, The law requires that When you go
out in public, you must carry a fire-arm (
pack a piece)
Mugging rate is zero, hence
aggravated assault
o Your damage is unprovoked
Murder
( first degree murder)
When you plan it ! it’s first degree murder
The prosecution is able to prove that you
‘ve plan it ahead
Secondary murder
You kill the person, but didn’t plan it out
ahead of time
Such as spousal violence
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Not pre-meditated
Manslaughter
Someone dies cause of your negligence
Sexual assault
Molesting, not serious as rape
Theory of Crime and deviance
-start with biology theory and then sociology theory
biologiy theory
Cesare Lomboroso
criminality is inherited
o an Italian ( Cesare Lombroso)is the first criminologist
o wrote ‘crime, its causes and remedies’ in 1911
o he trust that criminality is inborn –the ‘bad seed’ as metaphor
o atavism type
from evolutionary theory
what distinguish human from animal is the hum has
highly evolved moralistic sense this is true
some criminal types are not fully evolved
haven’t evolved this moral character that we
normal ppl possess—this is called ‘atavism type’
some ppl have atavistic types,-they haven’t developed
human morality, and hence they are criminal
so criminals are pre-human
o degeneracy
a criminal is a degenerate
aka, morally insane refer to nature
o proof he offers
this biological claim
he said: it’s impossible to physically identify criminals
o criminals possess stigmata
red hair , receding hairline ( baldness) , shifty eyes
he just took a guess of the above
lacks empirical support
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he compare a crimi with non-criminal sampel on
stigmata
random sample to make an ‘matched sample’
compare them on hair colour…
this is overthrown by Charles goring
o the English Convict in 1913
o tested the hypothesis: by comaring
the matched samples
find no diffence
so this dispose ―Lomboroso’’’s
guess on stigmata of criminals
o they are ego-centric, they are psychopath , sociopath
lack empathy ( read someone else)
feel no sense of guilty of killing ppl
objectify their victims ( no treting them as human
being)
William Sheldon
Interested in inborn criminalis simlar to Lombroso
Varieties of Human physicque 1940
Three body types
o Endomorph
soft round body build and a high proportion of fat tissue
o ectomorph
Tall, thin, non athletic
o Mesomorph
Mascular, agile, athletic
More likely among criminals
‘Gluecks’ ( a couple) : Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck
Physique and delinquency 1956
Replicate Sheldon ‘s work
Compare 500 delinquent with 500 non-delienquncy
o Results confirmed Sheldon
They find more mesomorphs in the D than in the non-D
Can we explain this away?
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