SOCB05 – Lecture 6 – June 13 2013
Quantitative Data Analysis
Numerical representation and manipulation of observations for the purpose of
describing and explaining
Preparing the Data
Generating Quantitative Data
o Respondents fill out survey/census questionnaires -> coding and codebook ->
Data Entry -> Data Cleaning -> Data Analysis -> Write a report
o SASS, SPSS, Stata: Writing a computer code to tell it how to analyse the
data. Need to input your own data.
o Quantifiable: Convert data into numeric form. Assign numbers to variables
and it’s various attributes.
Example: Gender – Male=0 , Female=1
o Coding: Translate data into something that computers/statistical software can
These numbers usually don’t mean anything, it’s just for
If you do it to rank something, number it so it makes sense.
o Codebook: Document that describes the location of a variable within a
dataset and lists the codes assigned to the attributes composing those
o Data Entry
Data Entry specialists enter the data into statistical software or Excel
Optical scan sheets (Scantron)
Sometimes it is part of the process of data collection.
Once it’s put into the computer you can see basic information about
o Data Cleaning
No matter how careful someone is, there will always be mistakes.
Either by the researcher, during the entry, or during the study.
Possible Code Cleaning
The process of checking to see that only the codes assigned
to particular attributes appear in the data file.
Make sure that only the numbers that are supposed to be
there, are there. Every respondent should fit into the numbers
Checking that only those cases that should have data entered
for a particular variable do in fact have such data.
Example: When you ask a question that has a second part to
it, only those that responded in a way to require the second
Example: Asking a question about how many children you
have given birth to, only women should answer it. No men
should have an answer for this.
o Analysing the Data
Univariate Analysis The examination of the distribution of cases of only one
Descriptive purposes only
One-way frequency distributions
Summarize distribution of a variable by reporting
the number of times each score of a variable
General rule for categories of frequency distribution: